نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی
1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
2 دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس- ریاست دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
3 استاد گروه معماری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Sa’adat Abad Garden of Qazvin was built during the kingdom of Shah Tahmasb Safavid while transfering the capital to Qazvin. According to the available documentations, the reason for this transfer in 1554 A.D. (962 A.H.) was the hazard of Ottoman and Russian regimes for Tabriz. At the order of Shah Tahmasb Safavid, gardens and necessary settlements, court spaces and other buildings were made. He encouraged some of the country’s squirearchy and close relatives to build gardens alongside state-owned gardens. Around the Sa’adat Abad garden, there were about twenty three gardens. Shah Tahmasb asked a poet named Khaje Zein al-Abedin Ali Navidi, known as Abdi Beig Shirazi, born 1515 A.D. (921 A.H.) in Tabriz (d. 1580 A.D.-988 A.H. in Ardebil), who was present at the Royal Court, to verse descriptions of Qazvin gardens. Abdi Beig’s Penta "Janat Aden (Gardens of Heaven)" including five Masnavis "Rowdah-al-Sefat (garden of qualities)", "Dohat-al-Azhar (Tree of blooms)", "Jinnat-al-Asmar (Heaven of fruits)", "Zinat-al-Owragh (Ornament of leaves)" and "Sahyfeh-al-Ekhlas (Book of devotion)", was the result of such effort, which contains valuable information about the generalities and details of this garden and its mansions. Abdi Beig’s poems are one of the most important documents about this garden, and it is clear from its description that Sa’adat Abad Garden wasa unique garden in that period. Among the most important spaces and features described in these poems it can be pointed to the street, gate, Arshikhaneh, Shervani’s house, porches, plane tree platform, pool house, garden geometry, and various types of trees and plants. The information available and the spaces mentioned in these poems are more than what is left today, and based on this information, one can get an overview of the general map of the garden and its spatial characteristics.
The purpose of this study is to the design of this imperial garden complex based on the poems of Abdi Beig Shirazi and to compare it with other texts and historical documents. The method used in this research is a historical-interpretative. The results are deducted by analyzing existing texts, images and maps. method that will result in goals after induction and analyzing the texts, existing images and maps. The general structures of the garden and its main elements including Aliqapu gate, Arshikhaneh (Chehelsotun), Shervani’s House, Royal court (Shah’s loggia) are among the most important elements analyzed in this study.
This historical source, in addition to clarifying the various objective aspects of architecture, landscape and gardening, can reveal the subjective-semantic aspects and the principles of aesthetics of that time. This paper finallyattempts to draw overall structure of the garden as a map and sketch sto form the basis for further studies and future development plans.