نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مرمت و احیای بناها و بافتهای تاریخی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان. نویسنده مسئول
2 استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی گروه مرمت و احیای بناها و بافتهای تاریخی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان.
3 مربی گروه مرمت و احیای بناها و بافتهای تاریخی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان.
عنوان مقاله [English]
As a masonry structure, buttresses have the role of controlling the sliding force of the main wall. This architectural element has been used in residential and non-residential buildings in various methods and ways from distant years. In this regard, archaeological evidences are the only valid indices by referring to which we can tacitly learn about the record of buttresses. Where and how it has first been used is not known, and nowhere has it been explicitly referred to. Even archaeologists have tacitly and briefly referred to it in their excavation reports. However, based on accessible limited reports, expansive application of this structure can be dated to post-Neolithic era when architects became aware of structural performance of this element and gradually with their part experiences; they used it in a different way with better structural performance. In this research, studied about Buttress types in terms of position, form and shape, used material, execution technique, ornament and technical function. By studying buttresses built during pre-historic and historical period, it will be seen that there were no structural scientific frameworks based on findings related to the strength of materials and mechanical rules. Little by little and through time, architects began to understand structural performance and structural perception of buttresses, owing to the experience and deep attitude towards the nature and behavior of masonry buildings. They emphasized not only the balance in forces, but also their appearance and esthetics. Lack of comprehensive research in this regard necessitated this research, and this issue was dealt with through library studies and descriptive and analytical research method.