عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem statement: The griffin is one of the composite creatures in ancient mythology that appears with the body of a lion, the ear of a horse, the head, and the wings of an eagle. This creature has been present during the historical periods of Iran, which shows its importance among Iranians. However, there are ambiguous points about how the griffin of the pre-Islamic era is related to the griffin of the Islamic era. Therefore, in this research, the griffin has been studied as a popular ornamental motif in two important historical periods of Iran; the Achaemenids in ancient times and Seljuk in the Islamic era.
Research objective: This article aims to study the manner of impressions, differences, and similarities between the griffin in Achaemenid art and Seljuk art by considering the comparative approach.
Research method: For this purpose, using the descriptive-analytical method, twenty-one artworks including the griffin in both historical periods were analyzed and compared in separate tables.
Conclusion: The results of the comparative study reveal that despite the differences, these motifs were often similar in terms of structural characteristics, physical posture, and visual features. Symbolically, they often had common concepts, such as the royal essence, power and wealth, and the guardian of the treasure and the palace. Influenced by religious beliefs, they were a symbol of goodness and blessing, magic invalidation, and protecting the tree of life. However, in some Achaemenid artworks, the griffin has been shown with a demonic aspect, in the conflict between good and evil. In general, the number of similarities and differences indicates that the griffin in the Seljuk period was affected by its similar motif in the Achaemenids, and factors such as political dominance, the authority of the monarchy, religious beliefs, and folk culture played a role in their formation and application.