نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی
دکتری معماری، مدرس دانشگاه ارومیه. ارومیه، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The following paper has developed to investigate the effect of regional culture and climate in transformations and developments of structure of urban residential buildings in the selected study area. Dwelling customs in the past and its manners in Iran and Azerbaijan republics cities, contained both open and close private space. Today, dwelling refers only to the case of inner space. Asdesigningresidentialhouse is influenced by various factors including culture and climate, description of new residential buildings design proportionate with culture and climate,is not possible in a glimpse and as a short introduction.For this reason, the major focus of this writing has been on impressionability of these houses from culture and climate, and on comparison of past century’sunderstudy houses.
The main purpose of surveying Tabriz and Baku residential buildings is identifying the influence of some factors such as culture, common religion, climate and the existing oppositions among them which has had a role in formatting residential buildings and construction industry of the area. By adopting these cases, particular conditions should be determined for designing the contemporary houses.
In passing through historical to contemporary house, we should see what values historical houses have lost and what other forces, except native knowledge, naturalism and energy-saving, have influenced the formation of contemporary house.And also, we should identify socio-cultural needs of historical cities inhabitants which demand necessary surveys inadvanced design methods and proper scientific analysis.
By certainty of this matter that even new residential buildings aren’t a perfect response to the traditional living manner of habitats and they haven’t had the structure of complete dwellings, this key question is raised whether today’s houses are proper for today›s life. House’s shapes aren’t only the result of physical forces, but they are the result of a collection of socio-cultural factors in their widest form. House shape, in its turn, varies by climatic conditions, construction methods, accessible materials and technology (for creating desired environment). So socio-cultural forces and existing climatic conditions are the primary or major forces and others are the secondary or varying forces.
Changes in historical cities of Iran and Azerbaijan republics made during conversions and renovations have caused changes in from and structure of residential buildings. Thus it`s essential that some lawfulness of designing methods suitable with influencing factors of culture and climate in the new residential buildings of Tabriz and Baku, be distinguished. Considering the modern technological facilities and specifications of traditional architecture, new models of planning must be suggested. It is obviously important to suggest projects in compliance with socio-cultural demands of residents and with consideration of the process of climate influence on the architecture of the houses.
Designing residential buildings proves its own acceptability and reasonability when it is formed by some criteria raised from territory’s ability and society’s needs and can maintain its response power even after time passing.