عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem statement: This article aims to review the creating background of the Nastaliq calligraphy, an identity for Iranian art and culture during the Timurid era, and also a proper context for Iranian poetry and literature. The development of calligraphy represents the Iranian identity and culture like a mirror and has the potential to lead and impress other arts through its literature-based discourse. The Iranian calligraphers have always been able to achieve a kind of proportion and stability by inventing various scripts like Nastaliq a brilliant master handwriting that can create distinctive attention compared to the other Islamic hand scripts. This study attempts to answer the following questions: a) how has the Iranian cultural identity emerged in Persian literature during the invention, development, and expansion of the Nastaliq script, b) how has the visual interpretation of Iranian culture been represented in the form of calligraphy?, c)What historical eras can be considered for addressing the development and evolution of the Nastaliq script when represented in Persian literature?
Research objective: This article examines and explains the reasons for the adherence of Iran’s cultural identity to the art of calligraphy, which has been of great importance in Persian poetry and literature, as the main reason for its growth and expansion.
Research Method: This study used a qualitative research method. Data was gathered by the library method and reviewing the specific works of calligraphy in the mentioned eras.
Conclusion: The result of this article addresses the seven historical eras of this prosperity and development of Iranian calligraphy. In other words, the findings of this research include the growth and expansion of Persian literature, in light of the flourishing art of calligraphy, as a progressive art. Finally, at the end of this evolution, calligraphy is considered the most significant component to represent Persian literature and establish Iranian cultural identity.