نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی
1 پژوهشگر دکتری تخصصی تاریخ تطبیقی و تحلیلی هنر اسلامی، دانشکدۀ هنرهای تجسمی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 استاد دانشکدۀ هنرهای تجسمی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Statement of Problem: The national design histories have been both popular and challenged framework. This dual aspect has also intensified in the context of globalization. The dominant Functionalist approach limits the identity of products to their usability purposes; On the other hand, vanguard design historians based on Postcolonial approach consider product design to be inspired by different climatic and socio-cultural conditions.
Therefore, how could product design, as a part of the nation's material culture, mean national or regional recognition? How does product design convey a particular national character to users?
Research Method: In response to the above questions, the article is a qualitative study that has been done in descriptive-analytical method based on library sources. The study has examined the macro-essentialist methods to create a national design based on identifying the concept of national character in design.
Research Objective: Recognizing the role of the national design and its Essentialist approach in global design history and to identify the methods and techniques applied to form a national design based on the creation of a national character.
Conclusion: In this study, by examining the valid documents of the national design history, five general effective methods in establishing national character in product design were identified: Extraction of aesthetic features according to national character, Specific functional characteristics of the product derived from the national character, Designing products based on the citizens` lifestyle as a national brand, Constructing the product using native materials and its special manufacturing method and finally, a national design thinking that is rooted in the various worldviews.
In all the methods, achieving an essential identity and creating a national character in design has been done by relying on two factors: "specific element or phenomenon of design" and "historical durability" of that element.