نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی
1 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.
2 استاد معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.
3 دانشیار مرمت ابنیۀ تاریخی، دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.
4 دانشیار معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem statement: Architecture, which is an integral part of a culture, arises from social and political contexts of each society. Use of monumental tombs in some geographical regions forms an important part of the civilization of a country. Considering the religious significance of these buildings in Iran, after the advent of Pahlavi, a new insight into architecture of memorial and monumental tombs was formed, which is mainly due to social and political contexts of the years 1921 to 1978. Knowledge about this context, and the way it has been created, can provide a better appreciation of how memorial tombs have been formed in this period.
Research objective: This research aims to investigate the influence of political and social currents of 1921-1978 on the creation of contemporary monumental tombs of Iran.
Research method: In this research, first, case studies were selected after field visits. Then, through library studies and document analysis, the political and social currents of the period contemporary with these buildings were analyzed using a historical-interpretive methodology, and the influence of these developments on the society was studied. This research investigates what political and social currents influenced the creation of monumental tombs of 1921 to 1978, and how these currents influenced the architecture of monumental tombs.
Conclusion: Analysis of available documents demonstrates that social and political developments in the first Pahlavi era including westernism, anti-religionism and an attempt towards national unity had a direct influence on selection of people that were memorialized by the monuments as well as the structure and shape of the monuments. Also, as these developments continued in the second Pahlavi period, they influenced the architecture of monumental tombs through the cultural context formed as a result of the relevant developments. In addition, compared to the previous period, design of these buildings were more influenced by the architects’ personal approaches and global society’s developments in art, leading to a change in form and details.