عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Iran has seen the rise and demise of many rulers across its history which dates back thousands of years ago. There are presently numerous religious and royal sites still standing across the country to be proof of Iran’s glorious past. The demise of the Sassanid dynasty brought about a major political and religious change in Iran. Nevertheless, the Persian art remained in place and over the years after the Sassanid downfall manifested itself in construction of sites and structures. Therefore, a study of the architecture used in structures in early years of the advent of Islam in Iran is necessary to realize how Iranian artists transferred their knowledge at the turn of this important historical juncture.
The eighth century in Iran’s history is called the age of scientific and cultural advancements and the era during which Persian art was revived (Free 42:2002). This is mainly due to the formation of various local statehoods in Iran and subsequently the emergence and development of different thoughts. It was during this period that important political hubs were created in Shiraz, Rey, Hamadan and Isfahan. It is understood from Islamic transcripts that there was a quarrel at the time between Ziar Dynasty and Buyid dynasty over capturing Isfahan. After a series of battles, Isfahan was eventually captured by the Buyid dynasty. It was then that the Buyid king Hassan Roknodolleh started serious efforts to develop the city (Honarfar 34:1971).
One of the remarkable sites that have been constructed in Isfahan during the Deilami era is Jurjir façade which is the only remaining part of Jurjir Jame Mosque of Isfahan. The façade of Jurjir Mosque dates back to the tenth century and its decorations were created at the time of its construction. This construction is a precious sample of brickwork and plasterwork of the era and is formed from three parts: frontage, front arch and doorway. Frontage of façade is divided into several parts by engaged columns. An example of such work was used in the Ashoor palace of Parthia period. This technique was popular in the Sassanid period and examples of it can be seen in the front of Kasra Palace (also known as Tagh-i Kasra) as well as in buildings and sites belonging to the eighth and ninth centuries.
By dividing the wide surface of facade into decorated, extended frame, a boring monotony of the surface is modified and numerous spaces are created for creating different decorations. In addition to this, the construction of long engaged columns produces a considerable visual effect on deluding excessive heights. This is believed to help add to the magnificence of the structure. Also these engaged columns create light and shade in different hours of day and has considerable effect on cooling the surface of the structure.
Jurjir façade is decorated with inscriptions of the name of Allah in Kufic part of which has been ruined over time.
Brickwork in constructions of buildings and religious as well as royal sites during the Deylamite period is an integral part of construction. Undoubtedly, the decoration on the façade of Jorjier Mosque should be considered as one of the remarkable samples of brickwork during the Deylamite period. The decoration on the Mosque includes five types of geometry designs. The plaster molding as used in the decoration of Jurjir facade is also a significant work of art that was common during the Deylamite period. In Jurjir Mosque, plaster has been used as decoration in two frames. Firstly, as an independent element and secondly as a perfect element. In other words, plaster is dependently engraved in some parts and was the decorated element of façade and in some parts it was used as brickwork decoration.
On the whole, eight types of decoration are seen on the Jurjir façade which are divided into two main groups of herbal and geometrical designs. One of the techniques used in Jurjir façade is to use brick and plaster work for decoration. Decoration of two eastern and western frames of façade was created from integration of brick and plaster as well as a combination of herbal painting and inscription. In other words, artistic shapes were used for decoration by bricks and then the decorations were polished by plaster.
It is generally known that each Islamic city has had only one Jame Mosqu (Hilnberand, 44:2004) by the 10th century. Interestingly, Jurjir Mosque was constructed opposite of Kabir Jame Mosque. Based on transcripts obtained from eras after the advent of Islam, Jurjir Mosque was superior to Kabir Jame Mosque from the viewpoint of height, firmness and architectural style. Nevertheless, some researchers have expressed doubt over whether Jurjir Mosque had any specific religious application. There is, however, no question regarding the fact that the Mosque is ancient and that it was constructed during the Buyid dynasty.
Studies show that brick working and plaster work techniques have been used skillfully in decoration of this structure and a study of applied paintings shows that patterns of most of these works date back to the Sassanid period. These artworks have been used in Islamic period with a new insight on that the Islamic insight has been manifested in its Iranian form which can be observed in painting lattice. For example, the designs of two sides of the façade which are stretched as a long tree from down to top, the reminder of engravings of two sides of big arch is Bostan Arch of Kermanshah. Also other geometrical designs and sometimes herbal designs are taken away from designs of Sassanid period artworks.