توفیق و ناکامی در ساماندهی مناطق کلانشهری؛ مقایسه تطبیقی محور شرق کلانشهر تهران با محور شرق کلانشهر پاریس

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس

2 استادیار

چکیده

محور شرق کلانشهر تهران از دیرباز به دلیل شرایط آب و هوایی مناسب، نقش موثری را در رشد و گسترش فضایی سکونتگاه های روستایی و شهری منطقه در خود ایفا نموده است. بطوری که این توان و پتانسیل سبب شده است تا در دوران های مختلف این محور بدون رعایت اصول و ضوابط برنامه ریزی به توسعه و گسترش سکونتگاه های روستایی و شهری بپردازند. اما اینگونه بی برنامه گی ها، توسعه های جسته و گریخته و بدقواره شرایط نامساعد و نابسامانی را از جنبه های مختلفی از قبیل اقتصادی، اجتماعی، محیط زیست، جمعیتی و ... در منطقه ایجاد نموده است. به همین دلیل دولت نیز براساس نتایج تجارب موفق شهرهای جدید درکشورهای اروپایی و به منظور کاهش بار جمعیتی، تمرکززدایی از کلانشهر تهران و همچنین به منظور سامان دهی سکونتگاه های این محور به احداث و توسعه شهر جدید پردیس پرداخته است؛ تا با برنامه ریزی و احداث این شهر جدید در اطراف کلانشهر تهران شرایط نابسامان منطقه و همچنین تمرکززدایی و کاهش بارجمعیتی تهران را رفع نماید. اما با وجود گذشت بیش از دو دهه از احداث شهر جدید پردیس ناکامی این سیاست مورد هدف قرارگرفته شده است. از اینرو این پژوهش درصد است تا به بررسی و تحلیل تطبیقی بین محور شرق کلانشهر پاریس به عنوان نمونه موفق از شهرهای جدید اروپایی با محور شرق کلانشهر تهران بپردازد. روش تحقیق تحلیلی و از تحلیل های فضایی استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش بیانگر آن می باشد، که برنامه ریزی، بدون در نظر گرفتن روابط فضایی بین فعالیت ها و سکونتگاه ها و دیدگاه صرفا لکه ای به سکونتگاه ها از جمله علل اصلی ناکامی در ساماندهی و تعادل بخشی به شهر جدید پردیس در منطقه کلانشهری تهران می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Success and Fiasco in organizing metropolitan region; comparison between East of Tehran metropolitan and East of Paris metropolitan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Naderi 1
  • Reza Kheyroddin 2
چکیده [English]

East of Tehran metropolitan (EOTM) has suitable climate at all. This condition’s climate change makes beneficial effects on accommodation, urban and rural settlements, development and also has the main and fundamental role in spatial spread and development in urban and rural region. However adequate climate, have made potential and power to gather population in milieu of east region, without considering and attention to principal and criteria planning during development and construct in urban and rural region. None planning and disorganizing milieu the east of Tehran metropolitan district, caused unsuitable and inappropriate conditions in many subjects such as, economy, social, environment, pollution issues and the list go on and on.
First new town had constructed by Ebenezer Howard in 1904 in Britain. There were lots of principals and theories about constructing and developing a new town. Its aim was to promote the concept of planned housing and to improve the general standard of the profession by the international exchange of knowledge and experience. During the industrial evolution in European unions, people had attended to work and stay in a cities center, for earning and investing more. Although, increasing population amount of cities center caused lots of physical and emotional problems, such as air polluted, water resources, environment degradation and so on. European designer tried to find out new methods to degrade the population from city center to suburb. They found a solution; it was included in construct number of New towns around the metropolitan, which were out of city center but inside regions. This plan leaded condition adequately for people, who wanted to work in crowded city and accommodated in outside of urban area.
In this situation Iran also had begun to site selecting and construct new towns around Tehran metropolitan from European new town’s experiences. So, ministry of urban development picked up four sites such as Andishe, Parand, Pardis and Hashtgerd, to constructed new towns around the Tehran metropolitan region. The aims of all new towns are decentralization, depopulate, increased job, declined housing price, polycentric, regional balanced and organized existent rural and urban settlements currently by constructing Pardis new town in East of Tehran metropolitan.
In this research, we were considered on Pardis new town in east of Tehran metropolitan which have been constructed over 20 years ago. But, unfortunately it hasn’t achieved yet. Although many European new towns specially, Marne – La- Vallee in east of Paris metropolitan has achieved their aims.
The main reason, that we had selected east of Paris and east of Tehran metropolitan, were high similarities between these regions. Like, there are same range of population, area and position. These similarities made easier condition to compare. Therefore, in this research we had considered to spatial and data comparison among two regions, which one of them has achievement motion whether the other has fiasco motion.
The research method is descriptive and spatial analysis, with modeling and mapping data from Paris region and Tehran region. This research consists of three steps. First, read and concentrated in books, interview. Second, gather spatial data from Landsat image and converted to vector data. At last compared and analysis between regions.
The results represented that most problems and main issues is planning without accurate attentions to spatial connections between activities and settlements, and it also consists of spot planning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial planning
  • Pardis new town
  • Marne-La-Vallee new town
  • Tehran metropolitan
  • Paris metropolitan