استخراج الگوهای اقلیمی فضاهای عملکردی در خانه‌های بومی بندر بوشهر با به‌کارگیری نظریه داده‌بنیاد

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسنده

چکیده

حاشیه جنوبی ایران دارای یکی از بحرانی‌ترین اقلیم‌های جهان است و توجه به مؤلفه‌های اقلیمی در فرآیند طراحی خانه‌ها در این منطقه، می‌تواند به بالا بردن سطح آسایش حرارتی ساختمان کمک کند. اقلیم‌گرایی دیدگاهی بنیادی در طراحی خانه‌های بومی ایران بوده، از این ‌رو به‌کارگیری الگوهای فضاهای عملکردی خانه‌های بومی در طراحی مسکن معاصر هر شهر، می‌تواند سبب ارتقای سطح آسایش شود. این مقاله ضمن استخراج و معرفی الگوهای فضاهای عملکردی در خانه‌های بندر بوشهر از طریق به‌کارگیری نظریه داده‌بنیاد و تطابق ویژگی‌های این فضاها با مشخصات اقلیمی بوشهر، در پی پاسخ به این سؤال است که الگوهای مذکور تا چه حد متناسب و متأثر از اقلیم است. این مقاله دارای هدفی کاربردی و راهبرد آن در مرحله تحلیل و استنتاج کیفی و از طریق نظریه داده‌بنیاد بوده و با روش تصویرسازی انجام می‌شود. گردآوری داده‌ها در دو بخش مطالعه کتابخانه‌ای و تحلیل اسناد خانه‌های بومی انجام شده است. تطابق الگوهای به دست آمده از کدگذاری نمونه‌ها با مؤلفه‌های اقلیم میانه و محلی منطقه مورد بررسی نشان می‌دهد که مشخصه‌های فضاهای عملکردی در نمونه‌های مورد مطالعه با مؤلفه‌های اقلیم میانه منطبق بوده و همچنین از الگوهای باد محلی پیروی می‌کند. از شاخص‌ترین نکات در الگوهای خانه‌های بوشهر می‌توان به استفاده از زمستان‌نشین برای فصول سرد برخلاف بسیاری نقاط حاشیه خلیج‌فارس و دریای عمان، ایجاد سامانه ایستای تهویه طبیعی با توجه به انتظام و جهت‌گیری فضاهای باز و نیمه‌باز اشاره کرد. در این الگوها فضاهای باز و نیمه‌باز مابین و مقابل فضاهای بسته قرار دارند و کشیدگی فضاهای بسته در جهت حیاط است. لذا در عین تراکم کلی حجم، فضاهای بسته زیستی از نظر تهویه طبیعی به صورت گسترده عمل می‌کنند. الگوهای اقلیمی این خانه‌ها شامل راه‌کارهای ساده‌ای از فرم صحیح فضاهای باز، نیمه‌باز و بسته و ترکیب‌های حساب‌شده‌ای از آنها در سطح و ارتفاع است که به سادگی قابل تعمیم و استفاده در الگوهای خانه‌های امروز خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Climatic Patterns of Functional Spaces in Vernacular Houses of Bushehr (By Grounded Theory)

نویسنده [English]

  • Niloufar Nikghadam
چکیده [English]

Contemporary vernacular houses in different climates of Iran are similar in terms of external and internal characteristics. These similar constructions, while being built regardless of their context, do not correspond to their environment and have the least effect in moderating weather conditions. According to statistics, in 2009 Iran’s oil and gas consumption were 1.4 which is 3.1 times higher than the world average consumption. It is reported that residential sector accounted for 42% of the total energy consumption in the country during  the period from 1998 to 2008. The southern Iranian marginal rim has one of the world's most critical climates; consideration of climatic components in housing design process is therefore essential in this area. Over the centuries, Climate consideration has been a fundamental principle in the design of vernacular Iranian houses, and application of these indigenous patterns in modern contemporary constructions of hot-humid region since it optimized the energy consumption and resultd in higher rate of thermal comfort. Climatic patterns of these vernacular houses not only affect the external characteristics of the building, but also are involved with the configuration and properties of the internal spaces. This paper is introducing functional spaces patterns in vernacular houses of Bushehr using by grounded theory parameters. This paper tries to clarify whether these patterns are in accordance with the climatic characteristics. Moreover, the extent to which the configuration of the living spaces is influenced by hot-humid climate has been investigated. This paper has applied objectives to establish the patterns and climatic solutions for classification of internal spaces in vernacular houses of Bushehr, so that it can be used in new-built dwellings to improve thermal comfort for building occupants in the mentioned region. The method of analysis and resultant in this research is qualitative based and answering the questions are found by grounded theory and data gathering from chosen samples, classification, analysis and finally choosing related data and their integration. Data gathering are conducted by the use of theoretical studies and analysis of vernacular houses documents and also in-depth analysis. Choosing the houses for further study, open and axial coding, and analysis by research pattern has was the first initial which was followed by the selective coding which leads to integration and introduction of vernacular house patterns . Final step comprises the study of typology and climatic pattern of vernacular houses in accordance with the climate and thermal comfort implications of the region; and the last step is research consequences. Climate calendar table according to Givoni indoors comfort zone of Bushehr show that using passive solar systems and mechanical heating are needed to improve the comfort level in cold months of the year. In summer time, mechanical dehumidification is needed from noon until midnight. In other times, the comfort level is provided or can be provide by using thermal mass and natural ventilation. Wind calendar table of Bushehr also indicates that sea breeze blows from north and north-west in every months from noon till 18:30 and sometimes in morning. Integration of the data in selective coding explains that the vernacular houses of Bushehr are introverted and all the sides of the courtyard have been used for summer and winter spaces. Courtyards have north-west to south-east alignment. Approximately 14% of the whole is assigned to courtyard, which provides shadow on the interior walls because of small size of it. Using shading devices and porches and tall walls of courtyard are the other preparations for providing more shadow in the courtyard. Semi open spaces are located in northeast, north-west and south-west sides and semi open staircases are located in four corners of the courtyard. The composition of semi open spaces and staircases, courtyard and their orientation toward open air acts like a passive system of ventilation. This system works as a solar chimney when there are no breezes. Windows around the house help the ventilation system. The houses are stretched towards the central courtyard due to the wide-open and semi-open spaces and also closed spaces. This paper indicates that the climatic typology of the houses is in accordance with climate classification of towns in meso-climatic scale by studying the characteristic of vernacular houses and the climate in Busher. Studies reveal that architectural characteristics of vernacular houses are compatible with meso-climatic and local morphology in Bushehr. In addition, this research shows that, architectural characteristics of vernacular houses will improve the level of comfort in summer and winter; however, there are times in which thermal comfort cannot be provided by these vernacular provisions. This research indicates that the application of the climatic patterns in each zone of the southern region of Iran can improve the comfort level in new-built dwellings. This paper reveals that vernacular houses in hot-humid climate of Bushehr are in accordance with meso-climate classification in terms of typology and in terms of patterns and living spaces characteristic and configuration of plan based on context.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate
  • Functional Spaces
  • Vernacular Houses
  • Bushehr
  • Hot-humid climate