عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Throughout the history, the creation of gardens has been the most beautiful of human activities. One of the most ancient arts of Iranians is the art of gardening which is valuable tradition and has spiritual power. The appearance of Persian garden so far has been utterly consistent with the nature and amount of the water. Given the variety of climate conditions in Iran, with few changes, Persian garden has been emerged in various forms. Since Safavid era, Gardens all over the city have been considered as elements of shaping the physical structure of the city. All the evidence from that period indicates that there was plenty of water in Isfahan, Zayanderud (river) was a natural axis and water was sent to all parts of the city. There were gardens which had created by using water streams (called MADI). In fact architecture of Isfahan in Safavid era was formed in its city and nature substrates. chaharbagh Abbasi avenue is one of the historic avenues in Isfahan which is located between Darvazeh Dolat and Si-O-Se pol. The avenue was designed in Shah Abbas I era. Shah Abbas I was the king who changed his capital from Qazvin to Isfahan and decided to gather all artistic wealth of the county into that central spot which has been called "Nesfe Jahan" or "Half of the World" for centuries. The chief architect of this urban design was Shaykh Bahai (Baha' ad-Din al-`Amili), who focused the program on two key features of Shah Abbas's master plan: Chaharbagh avenue- flanked at either side by all the prominent institutions of the city and the residences of all foreign dignitaries- and Naqsh-e Jahan Square. The public boulevard is about 1,650 meters long and consists of four quadripartite gardens arranged along the north-south axis that slopes towards the south. Each quadripartite unit is composed of two squares and two rectangular plots separated by pathways. Also, they are considered as a single boulevard with a central promenade flanked by axial garden shapes. The gardens have since been converted into roadways, with pine trees lining to either side. Running along the center of the promenade was a water channel with cascades; the promenade now only features circular flower beds and light posts. This avenue is one of the most prominent ones in the architectural history of Iran and in this era. Since Chaharbagh avenue is the most important and praiseworthy identity feature of the historic city of Isfahan with unique art, we should not be inattentive to the details of its changes and transitions. The research method is based on studies and the highlights mentioned in travelers’ itineraries and analysis of their contents as the most important historical sources. The objective of the present research is to recognize the physical structure of Chaharbagh Abbasi avenue in Safavid era and to similarly regenerate its design according to traveler`s statements. Since the physical elements of the avenue have still been remained- based on the available information from related documents, especially itineraries- we can illustrate its imaginary images and can respond to questions such as what characteristics this avenue had and what changes have been occurred in relation to it in different periods. The study is through descriptive-historical method by using written sources and documents of travelers in a comparison-oriented one. Moreover, introducing the images of each traveler’s statements help identify the avenue better. The ideas illustrated in these documents, in approval and completion of written and pictorial sources, provide us with the arrangements of the elements in this avenue and the social relations among people in Safavid and Qajar eras. It can be concluded that the avenue has encountered some changes in each traveler’s visiting period particularly in each era of Safavid and Qajar; for instance, the avenue’s planting system: In Safavid era there were two rows of plantain trees but in Qajar era they increased to four rows. In addition, in Qajar era distinctively in the period of Zill al-Sultan- ruler of Isfahan- numerous damages occurred to this avenue.