عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
There are high complexities in the scientific study of urban views due to many variables involved. Variety in different urban views, various viewing angles, diverse analysis techniques and analysis tools have led in ambiguity in the intent of urban views in many cases; in other words, the scope is not clear when we talk about urban views. Much research has been done so far pursuant to urban views and their qualities. Some are highly technical and quantitative and some are qualitative. Despite many studies carried out regarding to urban views and their qualities, certain frameworks which can systemize the studies within this scope of urban issues are few. The present study aims to classify different types of urban views and their analysis practices to develop a framework for further studies in this area. In order to scientifically examine urban views, major approaches related to urban views studies should be initially discussed. To access the existing approaches, it is referred to the studies related to urban views. Based on the different objectives of the present study, different approaches with respect to the topic are classified. In the present paper, seven main approaches concerning urban views are introduced in the following categories: 1. Place Approach; where the city is divided into mosaics of places with similar visual characters. To accomplish the issue, reconnaissance of the areas to view and identify their visual characters should be carried out. 2. Visual Approach; which its basis is the city being seen by people on their excursions to a city or on other trips when just passing through a city. Thus, a city from visual perspective is considered to comprise signs and symbols, natural elements, enclosedness or openness of spaces, etc which individuals can view while walking through the city. 3. Subjective Approach; of which visual strengths and problems of a city is determined by interviewing people. 4. Physical Approach; which includes instances such as behavior of the facades, sidewalks, roof lines, sculpture, and visual details analysis of a specific place. In general, it can be stated that in the present approach, 3D-based form and physical analysis of city is the main item in the visual assessment of it. 5. Organizational Approach; study towards detection of capabilities, identity, and visual qualities of the city. In the present approach, coherence of visual relation between urban elements and organs, clarity and existence of visual qualities which form the identity of urban views and landscape are considered. 6. Visibility Approach; this case is investigated upon whether or not an urban element is visible to citizens. Although visibility analysis is defined as zero-one (i.e. the visibility and invisibility), today by adding fuzzy logic to this type of analysis, related methods to this type of analysis have contributed to proper methods in visual analysis. 7. Behavioral Approach; which its main features are based on the reality of people’s behavior in the city and its relation to visual characteristics of the city. Based on the aforementioned approaches, different methods for visual analysis of city are described including: photo grid, stop-frame, city visual organization analysis, city visual form analysis, visual impact assessment, visual quality modeling, visual impact assessment, 3D-based view analysis, and Hough transform. Subsequently, the main tools for visual analysis including photomontage images, software, digital images, as well as their analysis methods are expounded. Consequently, the present paper defines a framework to classify the existing methods of urban views analysis based on approach, analysis scale, tools and techniques of urban views analysis which can be regarded as basic research for the subsequent studies in the field of urban views related to topics in architecture, urban design, urban planning or other related issues in urban studies.