عنوان مقاله [English]
The four arched of Qasr-e Shirin which is known as Chahār Qāpi with sides of 25 meters is considered as one of the biggest fire temples of Sassanid era in Iran which was probably made above 14 centuries ago according to historical sources and archaeological artifacts. It is likely that Chahār Qāpi was made by the order of king as regards its dimensions, stability and beauty as well as supplied accessories. A further glory for this structure comes from the fact that it was located in the vicinity of Khosrow palace – what has already raised speculations that the temple was built so that the members of the king’s court would perform their rituals in a way befitting the royal dignity. This could be particularly true when considering that the Sassanid rule was deeply rooted in religion and the kings of this dynasty considered themselves as the guardians of Zoroastrianism. Therefore, making water and fire temples was extremely important in the Sassanid dynasty. Chahār Qāpi has a strong and remarkable foundation and jamb, even though it was destroyed by the Romans and later abandoned when new rulers with new religions came to power in Iran. These elements are undoubtedly signs of its greatness in its days of architectural glory. Chahār Qāpi which has four thresholds is among fire temples that have vendor corridor as well as very beautiful interior decorations. This structure was surrounded by a collection of rooms and facilities parts of which were discovered by archaeologists in recent years and then restored by them. The architecture style of this temple is completely Sassanid. Common materials of the era like rubble stones and gypsum mortar were used in its construction. There was also a lofty dome at its top.
This article has tried to offer a clear picture of sites used to perform rituals of Zoroastrianism during the Sassanid era. The sites are commonly known as Chahār Tāqi each with the form, construction materials and decorations particular to a specific section of the Sassanid society. The Chahār Tāqis built for the royals were much stronger and bigger and had more decorations and corridors. The information presented in this article has been collected from observations of Muslim historians and geographers as well as the findings of archaeologists in order to provide a clear image of Chahār Qāpi. According to information obtained as the result of this research, the fire temple of Chahār Qāpi was simultaneously constructed with the palace of Sassanid king Khosrow Parviz. The cruciform plan of this monument that comprises of two perpendicular axes recalls the style of some Sassanid palaces, especially in the beginning of this dynasty.