چهارقاپی، آتشکدهای در کوست خوربران

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری باستانشناسی. دانشیار گروه باستانشناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد باستانشناسی

چکیده

چهارتاقی قصرشیرین معروف به چهارقاپی با اضلاع 25 متر یکی از بزرگترین آتشکدههای ایران در دوره ساسانی به شمار میرود که با استناد به منابع تاریخی و شواهد باستانشناختی احتمالاً در اواخر این سلسله ساخته شده است.
بنای مذکور که در مجاورت کاخ خسرو قرار داشت، معبدی برای ساکنان کاخ بهشمار میرفت تا تشریفات دینی خود را در آن بهجای آورند. مجاورت این بنا با کاخ نشانگر وابستگی دین و دولت در حکومت ساسانی به یکدیگر است.
چهارقاپی با وجود اینکه توسط رومیان تخریب و بعدها با تغییر حکومت و مذهب در ایران به حال خود رها شد، با گذشت زمان طولانی از ساخت آن، دارای پی و گوشوارهای بسیار مستحکم و جالب توجه است که عظمت آن را در زمان آبادانی آشکار میسازد.
چهارقاپی با چهار درگاه ورودی در زمرة آتشکده هایی قرار دارد که علاوه بر دارا بودن دالان طواف، از تزیینات معماری داخلی فوقالعاده زیبایی نیز برخوردار بوده است. پیرامون این سازه مذهبی مجموعهای از اتاق و تأسیساتی قرار داشته که در سالهای اخیر بخشهایی از آنها در نتیجه کاوشهای باستانشناسی کشف و تا حدودی مرمت شده است. سبک معماری این بنا کاملاً ساسانی و با استفاده از مصالح بوم آورد از قبیل لاشه سنگ و ملاط گچ ساخته شده و بر فراز آن گنبدی رفیع قرار داشته است.
این مقاله کوشیده است تا با استفاده از منابع مورخین و جغرافیانگاران دوره اسلامی (رهیافت تاریخی) و نیز پژوهشهای باستانشناسی سیمای روشنی از چهارقاپی ارایه و عملکرد آن را به عنوان یکی از مراکز دینی ساسانیان در اواخر این سلسله در کوست خوربران آشکار سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chahār Qāpi, a Fire Temple in Khurbarān Kust (Sassanid’s Western State)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Mehrafarin 1
  • Ebrahim Ahmadi Hedayati 2
1 .Associate professor in University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
2 M.A. in Archaeolog, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The four arched of Qasr-e Shirin which is known as Chahār Qāpi with sides of 25 meters is considered as one of the biggest fire temples of Sassanid era in Iran which was probably made above 14 centuries ago according to historical sources and archaeological artifacts. It is likely that Chahār Qāpi was made by the order of king as regards its dimensions, stability and beauty as well as supplied accessories. A further glory for this structure comes from the fact that it was located in the vicinity of Khosrow palace – what has already raised speculations that the temple was built so that the members of the king’s court would perform their rituals in a way befitting the royal dignity. This could be particularly true when considering that the Sassanid rule was deeply rooted in religion and the kings of this dynasty considered themselves as the guardians of Zoroastrianism. Therefore, making water and fire temples was extremely important in the Sassanid dynasty. Chahār Qāpi has a strong and remarkable foundation and jamb, even though it was destroyed by the Romans and later abandoned when new rulers with new religions came to power in Iran. These elements are undoubtedly signs of its greatness in its days of architectural glory. Chahār Qāpi which has four thresholds is among fire temples that have vendor corridor as well as very beautiful interior decorations. This structure was surrounded by a collection of rooms and facilities parts of which were discovered by archaeologists in recent years and then restored by them. The architecture style of this temple is completely Sassanid. Common materials of the era like rubble stones and gypsum mortar were used in its construction. There was also a lofty dome at its top.
This article has tried to offer a clear picture of sites used to perform rituals of Zoroastrianism during the Sassanid era. The sites are commonly known as Chahār Tāqi each with the form, construction materials and decorations particular to a specific section of the Sassanid society. The Chahār Tāqis built for the royals were much stronger and bigger and had more decorations and corridors. The information presented in this article has been collected from observations of Muslim historians and geographers as well as the findings of archaeologists in order to provide a clear image of Chahār Qāpi. According to information obtained as the result of this research, the fire temple of Chahār Qāpi was simultaneously constructed with the palace of Sassanid king Khosrow Parviz. The cruciform plan of this monument that comprises of two perpendicular axes recalls the style of some Sassanid palaces, especially in the beginning of this dynasty.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Four arched of Qasr-e Shirin
  • Chahār Qāpi
  • Fire Temple
  • Khosrow Parviz
  • Sassanian