مطالعه تطبیقی پیوند مفهومی میان فضای موسیقی و معماری در دوران پیش از مدرن و پس از آن در جهان غرب

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تهران مرکز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 استادیار و عضو هیأت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تهران مرکز

چکیده

این مقاله جستاری پیرامون مقایسۀ رابطۀ مفهوم فضا در موسیقی و معماری جهان غرب، در دو دورۀ پیش از مدرن (قرن‌های14-18 میلادی) و پس از مدرن (قرن‌های 18-21 میلادی) است. در بیشتر پژوهش‌هایی که تا به امروز در مقایسۀ تطبیقی میان فضای موسیقی و معماری صورت گرفته، به معیارهای ظاهری بسنده شده و پژوهشی در زمینۀ رابطۀ مفهومی و محتوایی میان این دو هنر به طور جدی صورت نپذیرفته است. این بررسی در نظر دارد با مقایسة رابطة مفهوم فضا در موسیقی و معماری در دو بازۀ زمانی پیش گفته، به بررسی پیوندهای مفهومی میان این دو هنر بپردازد. به دلیل تحولاتی که در دوران رنسانس در اثر تغییر نگرش نسبت به تعریف و جایگاه هنرمند و ارتباط او با هنر و اثر هنری پدیدار شد، این دوران به عنوان مبدأ بررسی زمانی در نظر گرفته شده است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، نزدیک شدن به پاسخ این پرسش‌ها است که چگونه پیوندی میان فضای موسیقی و معماری در این دو دوره وجود دارد؟ چه تغییراتی در ساختار این رابطه ایجاد شده و دلایل آن چیست؟ بدین منظور سه مقولۀ اصلی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است : بخش اول : بررسی مفهوم "فضای معماری" در دوران پیش از مدرن (رنسانس تا مدرن) و پس از آن (مدرن تا معاصر) بخش دوم : بررسی مفهوم "فضای موسیقی" در دوران پیش از مدرن (رنسانس تا مدرن) و پس از آن (مدرن تا معاصر) بخش سوم : بررسی"رابطۀ فضای موسیقی و معماری" از دوران پیش از مدرن (رنسانس تا مدرن) تا پس از مدرن (مدرن تا معاصر) در نهایت دلایلی که باعث تغییر ساختار این پیوند از زمان مدرن به بعد شده است، به اختصار مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. این مقاله با تکیه بر بررسی تطبیقی، قصد دارد این واقعیت را روشن کند که : نخست، از دوران پیش از مدرن تا به امروز همواره رابطه‌ای مفهومی میان موسیقی و معماری وجود داشته و این دو هنر در تمامی دوران‌ها پیام‌آور مفاهیمی واحد بوده‌اند و دیگر آنکه، دوران مدرن به دلیل تحولات متعاقب آن باعث ایجاد تغییراتی در ساختار این پیوند مفهومی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Survey on Conceptual Relation between Music and Architecture Space, in Pre-Modern and Post-Modern Eras, In the Western World

نویسندگان [English]

  • sara sohangir 1
  • vida norouzborazjani 2
چکیده [English]

Till now many researches have been done in order to find and clarify the different kinds of relations between two well known arts: Music and Architecture, during the years of their existence. The majority of these researches have only focused on the comparison of superficial and structural aspects and no deep research has been done to specify conceptual and spiritual relations between these two. Here it is intended to explain the conceptual relations between Music & Architecture space by exploring the relation of concept of space in Music & Architecture within two periods of pre-modern (14-18 centuries) & post-modern (18-21 centuries) in western countries. Because of the main revolutions that occurred in Renaissance, which resulted in changing viewpoints of artists, their needs and insights towards world & life, this era has been chosen for the beginning time of the research & furthermore the 18th century, because of its serious changes in work patterns, life styles and also its industrial & economical revolutions, has been chosen as the dividing time, from the Renaissance till now into two parts of pre-modern and post-modern. The purpose of this investigation was to find the answer to the following questions: How was the relation between music and architecture space in these two periods? What kinds of changes have happened in the structure of this relation and what are some of the reasons? To find the answer, this study has been done in three parts: First section: Survey on concept of “Architecture space” within pre-modern and Post-modern era. Second section: Survey on concept of “Music space” within pre-modern and Post-modern era. Third section: Survey on relation between Music and Architecture space from pre-modern till Post-modern. At the first part, with the facts that are founded & mentioned in the chart 1, it is shown that in the history of architecture in different eras like Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Classic & Romantic, as the pre-modern periods, there has been a special concept behind each architectural space design. At the modern & post modern also there are found some specific concepts in the relation with the designed spaces also. In the second part there is shown that in music it has been the same and in different eras like Renaissance, Baroque, etc. there has been founded specific concepts behind the spaces that was created through the musicians and this pattern had continued in modern & post modern eras as well. Finally it is interestingly discovered that at each of the eras mentioned (like Renaissance, Baroque, etc.) there has been the unique conceptual meaning behind both architecture & music spaces at the same time ,and they has expressed the same meaning. For example at the Renaissance, in both music & architecture spaces it has been mainly focused on "human and its perception of space", at baroque on "the movements & motion of space", at Rococo on "the use of trapping in space, "at Classic on "the use of old patterns in the creation of space" and finally at Romantic "the emotions & artists revelations" had been the main point. But After 18th century in modern era, this relation changed so that there was no unique conceptual relation between the architect's & musician's works and multiple conceptual spaces started to appear and it continued into the post modern till now. Some of the reasons for this change could be the industrial & economical revolutions, technology progresses, changes in the meaning and usage of space, etc. some of the results of these changes from unique conceptual relation to multiple conceptual relation is that less communication between the arts is seen, if at past one specific concept was expressed by both the music & architecture spaces at the same time and one helped the other to expresses its meaning, today is not so and the relation is so disturbed and obscurant that none of them reminds you the other. And also they are less influenced by each other. So this article clarified the fact that:1th,from pre-modern till present time, always conceptual relation between music and architecture space has been existed and these two arts in all periods expressed unique meaning. 2nd, Because of the revolutions that have happened within modern period, some serious changes have occurred in the structure of this conceptual relation. By further researches more details of these changes and also its impact on the relations of other arts could be figured out and its advantages & disadvantages could be investigated as well. Each of the eras which mentioned here could be studied in Eastern world (countries) and compared with what is done in this research as the Western world.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture Space
  • Music Space
  • Pre-modern and Post-modern Eras
  • Superficial Approach
  • Conceptual Relation between Music and Architecture