رویکرد تعاملی سطوح و مقیاس طراحی شهری در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

ارتقاء کیفیت محیط شهری از دغدغه‌های اصلی شهرسازی و هدف اصلی تمام طرح‌های توسعه شهری است. در ارزیابی و تجارب ماحصل از اجرای طرح‌های توسعه شهری در جهان و به ویژه کشور ما این موضوع اثبات شده است که طرح‌های مزبور در خلق محیط شهری واجد کیفیت، توفیق کمی داشته‌اند. با این ضرورت در سال‌های اخیر، اندیشمندان مختلف شهرسازی، از حضور تفکر کیفیت‌گرای خاص طراحی شهری، در تمام مقیاس‌های [کلان و خرد] طرح‌های توسعه شهری برای ایجاد محیط واجد کیفیت حمایت کرده‌اند. این مقاله با روش مطالعة تطبیقی و تحلیل محتوای متون و مفاهیم مؤثر در تحول طراحی شهری و مقایسة آن با گرایش‌ها و گونه‌های مختلف طراحی شهری در چارچوب برنامه‌ریزی   راهبردی و با استفاده از تجربیات پیشین با تلفیق فرایند طراحی شهری و برنامه‌ریزی   شهری، و با هدف ساخت تصویری از یک رویکرد نوین و امید‌بخش برای کاربست عملی طراحی شهری در طرح‌های توسعه شهری به منظور ارتقاء کیفیت محیط شهری شکل گرفته است. یافته‌های این تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که طراحی شهری در حوزه کلان مقیاس دارای تولیدات کاربردی است که می‌تواند به ارتقاء کیفیت محیط کمک کند، تحقق عملی این رویکرد بسته به پذیرش و رعایت پنج مؤلفة ذیل است :
الف. حضور اهداف طراحی شهری در طیف مقیاس برنامه ریزی، ب. پیوند حرف و همکاری تخصص‌های مختلف در موضوعات طراحی شهری، ج. مشارکت پذیری عمومی درطراحی، د. وجود سطوح و سلسله مراتب مقیاس طراحی شهری، ه. پشتیبانی از موضوعات طراحی شهری. نتایج این مقاله نشانگر تعامل بین طراحی شهری و برنامه‌ریزی   شهری در مقیاس کلان و خرد به عنوان یک ضرورت در نظام توسعه شهری است وکاربست مولفه های فوق تضمینی برای عملی نمودن این رویکرد و کارامدی طرح‌های توسعه شهری است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Design-Based Planning as Interactional Approach in Macro and Micro Scale Plans

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Moslem Seyed- al hoseini
  • Farah Habib
  • Hamid Majedi
چکیده [English]

The aim of this research is to integrate the processes of urban designing and urban planning to increase the quality of urban environments.  To do that, the present research has tried to compare the differences between the current urban design tendencies and styles in various strategic planning frameworks. Also, this research examines the implementation of designing in urban planning processes in Iran. 
 
A review of the process of urban planning and an assessment of the technicalities of development plans over the past five decades in Iran confirm that these processes are not responding properly to the quality aspects of urban areas.  The current situation stems from numerous reasons which could be found in rational nature or scheming process, survey, approval and implementation of plans. To confront these problems and to provide a new process which could encompass both city planning and designing, the present research has studied the traditions of city planning process.  The purpose of doing this was to link both urban planning and design tendencies.  In practice, this approach can have positive outcomes at all levels of new strategic planning hierarchy and policy oriented urban design.
 
In urban development plans, enhancing the urban environment qualities is a significance challenge for planners and designers.  The status quo of Iran shows that those plans have less been successful in creating qualitative urban environment.  Therefore, the experts and professionals have over the recent years called for conducting qualitative approaches to designing and planning urban environments in different scales.
 
There is an essential need to analyze the application of urban designing in Iran.  The research question intends to understand how urban designing is utilized in the processing of development planning in Iran. The literature review published on urban designing provides not only an acceptable model for further researches (Wolff 1970, Shirvani 1981,Varkki 1977, Punter 1999,Carmona 1997) but also operational definitions of the components of this process. 
 
The study uncovered a large body of literature pertaining to urban designing.  The literature, however, was in many respects confusing and contradictory with regards to the nature of implementing urban designing by public officials.  The literature review revealed that there are many different approaches for defining the tools for urban designing.  These tools yield a wide variety of terminology and jargon used to describe implementation procedures. 
 
The methodology of this research is a qualitative method and especially content analysis technique to extract the essence of plans also their objective. This thesis makes use of this literature to examine this process on a recently completed development plans in Mashhad in Iran.  This paper examines the tools of urban design utilized by planners in development plans.  The paper identifies the lack of agreement within academic writing defining the role, practice and function of urban design as a source of confusion for the study of professional practice.
 
Findings of the present research identified that there are four important factors which are necessary to enhance the quality of urban environment.  They included incorporating urban design in the macro scale levels of planning, exploiting professionals in the process of development planning, facilitating the participation of stakeholders, clients, and laypeople in the process of planning, and using adaptability in planning and change management.  The results of this research show that the interaction between planning and designing process is necessary and also comprise a significance factor to guaranty the success of planning and designing program in Iran.   Results of this research could be applied in urban planning as a guideline to harmonize urban development plans.  Additionally, it could help identify challenges for planning in Iran.  The findings of the present research have confirmed Varkki`s argument and support the need for increased attention of scholarly research over the procedure elements of urban design.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Words: Evaluation
  • Environment Quality
  • interactional approach in macro and micro scales
  • Urban planning
  • Urban Design