عنوان مقاله [English]
In modern life, parks as major municipal areas have an important role in social life of citizens. Recent social and cultural transitions created different approaches in one hundred years experiencing of making parks in the system of urbanization and modern town management. For recognizing every period’s parks we should search about their characteristics roots from that time. Discovering the way that thoughts and patterns affect designing parks from Pahlavi period till now is a major question that its answer can be a key role for recent decisions.
This research can be a guide for municipal managers, programmers and park designers for the future by determining effective factors and the way they affect on the body of the parks and analyzing their ups and downs and also it can be the base for making decisions.
The methodology is analytical comparative in contemporary research history context. Because Tehran centered in changes, has chosen as the location of this study. In this study five approaches and periods of building parks has introduced (Pahlavi period and four periods in Islamic Republic) and key parks were considered as basics. At first changes of park physics will be analyzes, then context variables (social, political, economical and cultural elements) of different periods will be analyzed comparatively and compatibility of changes of park physics with four variables will determined.
In the process of analyzing, a significant physical distinction over parks with differences about their level and kind of aesthetic and their cultural uses is recognizable. Primitive Park building such as City Park is more concentrated on the climate and cooling with emphasize on archaism. Pahlavi II designing parks were mostly organic and recreational and for purpose of making new social relationships.
In park building of early revolution the focus was on functional aspects of the park and in some parks like Conversational parks the focus was mostly on cultural aspects and then on visual attractions of parks. After that huge parks in the south of the city were created for axial justice. So the main priority in the history of development is the sensitivity of climate and function, culture, aesthetic and social justice. However different political, social, economic and cultural situations are effective factors that have a direct effect on park patterns in every period. Contraction and expansion include the simplicity of early after the revolution and luxury-oriented after that in the history of park building in Iran can be interpreted this way.