عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The gardens of the South coast of the Caspian Sea are prominent instances of Persian gardens which, unlike the Persian desert gardens, are not at variance with their surroundings. According to Eskandar Beig, Shah Abbas’ secretary, garden construction in Mazandaran is like paradise construction in the heaven. Despite several gardens in the area, little research has been conducted in this regard because few historic gardens remained; the only sources that refer to these gardens are the few descriptions and pictures in the European travelers’ histories and travelogues. Despite climatic variations, most of the Safavid gardens in this area were built based on the spatial geometric pattern of the Persian garden and the only difference between the gardens in this area and those in the central and the southern areas is in their use of the natural elements. Therefore, studying these gardens as a special kind of Persian Garden is necessary. This research is conducted in a descriptive-analytical method and investigates historical documents and images. Moreover, case study is conducted through field investigation in order to recognize the features of Bahrol-eram garden and the role of natural elements in this garden in comparison to other Persian gardens.
This paper seeks to understand the role of the landscape elements such as water in the formation of Bahrol-eram. The hypothesis states that the widespread presence of water in this area and the full interaction of the garden with its context have create a kind of garden called the island-garden. According to the historical evidence, historians and travelers’ quotes, the garden situation, and also based on the images, Bahrol-eram is an island-garden which was constructed in the area because of its appropriate climate and abundant water. The widespread presence of water surroundingthe whole garden which is embedded in the central island makes it a specific instance of the Persian gardens which can be referred to as island-gardens. Despite the lack of climatic justification (increased humidity), the Persians’ respect for water and its value for them have caused the garden to be a royal residence and resort. The existence of this garden reflects the natural diversity of Iranian garden, maintaining its basic principles.