2دکتری باستانشناسی. عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشکده سازمان میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری.
رزمین آذربایجان در معماری ایران مرتبه نخست را دارد. آغاز فعالیتهای معماری ایلخانان به مرکزیت تبریز با بهرهگیری از تجربیات و سنتهای متقدم، فصلگشای عصر جدیدی در هنر و معماری این منطقه بوده است. کاربرد تزیینات معقلی و تلفیق آن با ویژگیهای ممتاز سبک آذری در قالب تأکید بر ارتفاع بیشتر، استعمال سنگ تراشیده و بهرهگیری بیشتر از هندسه، در یکی از زیباترین و منحصربه فردترین آثار معماری این دوران، موسوم به کاروانسرای آلاکی، برآیند تداوم سنتها و اسلوبهای برخاسته از مکاتب بنیادین محلی آذربایجان بوده است. مطالعات انجام شده در زمینه ساختارشناسی و معرفی تزیینات بنای آلاکی در زمرة مهمترین اهداف این تحقیق محسوب میشود؛ بدیهی است احیاء و شناخت ویژگیهای معماری و تزیینی یک بنای ویران شدة عصر ایلخانی میتواند ما را در شناخت هرچه بهتر سیر تحول معماری و تزیینات وابسته به آن به خصوص در منطقة آذربایجان یاری کند. پرداخت اطلاعات در پژوهش حاضر به شیوة توصیفی، مقایسهای و تحلیلی بوده و روش یافتهاندوزی در آن به صورت کتابخانهای و میدانی است. حاصل این مطالعه، شامل معرفی ساختار کاروانسرای آلاکی در زمرة قدیمیترین طرح چهار ایوانی کاروانسرا در شمال غرب کشور و بررسی تزیینات بسیار پرتکلف آن است. بنا بر یافتههای تحقیق، فنون به کار رفته در اجرای تزیینات کاروانسرای آلاکی را میتوان قدیمیترین نوآوریهای معماری ایلخانان در زمینة تزیین انواع فرمهای کاروانسرا در منطقة آذربایجان دانست. از بارزترین مصادق سبک تزیینی این بنا میتوان به الگوی خاص تزیینات سردر ورودی آن در قالب طاقنماهای تزیینی و تطابق آن با آثار و دستآوردهای مذهبی معاصر ایلخانان اشاره کرد.
An exploration of historical recognition and decorations of Alaki Caravansary
سIlkhani period in Azerbaijan holds the first place in Iranian architecture. Ilkahnid architecture commenced since Tabriz became the capital and it began to flourish by using the past experiences and Iranian traditions to configure a new era is an important period in creating local styles in art and architecture of this land. The utilization of cut-patterned tile whose effect on formation of artistic traditions of Iran is considerable. Grandeur observed in the architecture of this period especially in Azerbaijan province is premium full of care taste, and selectivity. The existence of magnificent and artistic monuments in this area is not surprising because Azerbaijan has been cradle of art and zeal in all periods. This position is clear for the people who have recognized the styles of Azerbaijan in traditional Iranian architecture and are familiar with their techniques. Although the lack of recording these achievements and study shortage along with technical examinations are the big deficiencies in anonymity of this monument, there are clear and valuable evidences in this area that necessitate more studies in this regard. During this period and regarding central monarchy of Mongols as well as their specific attention to the trends of developing international business in main paths of silk route the areas around it gained great importance. In this regard, they pay higher attention to flourishing those places. They tend to making magnificent buildings in their architecture. Among the most significant attempts in this regard, building and decorating caravansariesin the framework and time period of first era of Azeri style as the most grandeur business body and the most eminent social service can be mentioned. The monuments ofIlkhani caravansaries are seen in different places of Azerbaijan province. The view and tendency ofIlkhani monarchy to founding caravansaries in North West of Iran has differentiated it from other eras in a way that it is considered as the start period ofcaravansary foundation in Iran and paying specific attention to protecting from business routes. The question which comes to the mind is that what chain of events can be considered for the creation of such structural bodies in that era. The answer to this question lies in the location of Azerbaijan province which is concerned as one of the most important business-communicative centers. It has always been a strategic area in Iran and its eminent role in economic interactions and oversea transactions and domestic fields is not something to be denied. Although because of full destruction of other sections of Alaki caravansary, it is not possible to study and examine its elements in a comprehensive and favorable manner for the researchers, the arch of entrance door left from the ruins is so magnificent that is actually graceful and appropriate for the dignity of a king’s entrance. These details reveal higher welfare level compared with that of other known caravansaries beforehand in Iran. Therefore, it necessitates building a different construction and decoration combined by superb Azari architectural features of creating grandeur, the using of carved stones and principals. A specific attention to creating grandeur in the minds of observers that is the main feature of Azeri style in architecture and their harmonic structure reveal the existence of a specific module for the construction of Alaki caravansary. The ratio of width to the length of its arch in a background made of turquoise tiles for making it more significant is an unusual and exotic feature of this monument. As a matter of fact, such view and feature today seems much less unusual for its era than for the observers of it at the moment. The basis of decoration in this structure is on considering geometric rules in a module which has appeared in the most delicate form in it. Full follow of geometric rules in the patterns and symbols are all embodied in a unique building of this style called Alaki Caravansary which is the product of continuation of local traditions and is the sign of harmony and order which are main features ofIlkhani art. The margins around are arranged using decorations with tiny-pattern tiles in order which is beyond the normal style of the caravansaries in the area and that era. The structure of Alaki caravansary differs with other caravansaries in Azerbaijan considering two aspects: first, the plan with four balconies in caravansary building belongs to it and is registered in architectural records. The caravansary in Mongol monarchy era which starts its development in Azerbaijan province and becomes quite indigenous modes of Azerbaijan. Therefore, studying the structure and introducing the decoration of Alaki building is considered the main objective of this research; obviously the restoration and recognition of architectural and decorative features of a ruined Ilkhanid building could lead us to a better understanding of architecturefor that area becomes pioneer for other caravansaries in the area such as Ayrandibi and Darediz. From this aspect, it is completely different with roofed construction of Azerbaijan caravansaries that are formed proportional with cold and mountainous weather of this province. From the other hand, its flamboyant decorations seem to form in passage from Razi style to Azeri style, parallel with religious beliefs. In fact, engineering and decoration evolution, especially in the area of Azerbaijan.of this monument is a kind of reflection and reference of religious architecture of Ilkhani which is revealed in gravestones and altars of that era. This study is descriptive-comparative and analytic. To gather data, field and library methods were utilized. This paper was provided in an attempt for examining the construction and high decorations of Ilkhanid caravansary as the oldest example of four-balcony caravansaries in northwest of Iran. According to the findings of this research, the techniques used in the implementation of the Alaki Caravansary decorations are among the oldest Ilkhanid architectural innovations for decorating various forms of Caravansary in the area of Azerbaijan. One of the most distinctive examples of the decorating style of this building is reveled on the unique pattern of the main entrance gate in form of decorative arching which are parallel with Ilkhanid religious works and achievements.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Ilkhanian period, AlakiCaravansary, Architecture decoration, Azerbaijan era