چگونگی بازتاب شاخصه‌های مناظر شفابخش در الگوی منظر باغ ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد معماری‌، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قزوین

2 . دکتری معماری. دانشیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

چکیده

عناصر معماری منظر سرشار از رویکردهای متفاوت معمارانه است. تناسبات، تضادها، تقارن‌ها، تعالی و دیگر پارامترهای زیبایی‌شناسی نیز در آثار معماری منظر همچون سایر هنرها چشمگیر است. اما رویکردهای کارکردی عناصر معماری منظر در بسیاری از موارد دیده نشده است. به همین منظور ارتباط میان چشم‌انداز و سلامت انسان در تحقیقات و در سطح جهانی بسیار مهم تلقی شده و اهمیت روز افزون پیدا می‌کند از طرفی لذت‌بردن از این چشم‌اندازها ویژگی منحصر به فرد انسان است بدین معنا که انسان ذاتاً به طبیعت تمایل دارد و در کنار آن آرامش خاطر پیدا می‌کند و از طرف دیگر به وضوح می‌توان دریافت که معماری منظر فقط در راستای زیباسازی محیط گام بر‌نمی‌دارد بلکه منظر و عناصر طبیعی را به گونه‌ای طراحی می‌کند که بر روان فرد تأثیر مثبت داشته باشد. در این پژوهش به بازشناسی رویکرد شفابخشی معماری باغ ایرانی در تناسب با شاخصه‌های مناظر شفابخش پرداخته و نسبت به بازخوانی این رویکرد اقدام شده است. در این میان هم به معرفی پارامترهای شفابخشی توجه شده که به بهبود سلامت و افزایش میزان بهداشت روان بسیار کمک می‌کند و هم این پارامترها در نمونه‌های موردی‌، بررسی و پیمایش شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Application of Healing Landscapes in Persian Gardens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rana nili 1
  • Reihane nili 1
  • Hosein Soltanzadeh 2
چکیده [English]

Landscape architecture elements are the product of different architectural approaches. Proportions, contrasts, conjunctions, elevation and other aesthetics parameters abound as in any other art.  But in most cases, the functional approaches to landscape architecture elements have been ignored. Therefore, the present paper attempts to compare the healing effect of the architecture of Iranian gardens with that of other modern gardens. The healing parameters which boost general mental health are introduced and the results of case studies with these parameters are given herein. On the one hand, taking joy in gardens is a special feature of human meaning that man has a tendency toward nature and reaches peace and tranquility in it and on the other hand it can be obviously understood that architecture doesn’t just aim at beautifying the environment but also designs scenes and natural elements in a way to induce positive effects upon man’s soul. This feature is considered as motivation of mans’ contact with nature. Development of this relation can be searched in healing gardens. Goslar ( 1991), in his  book entitled “cultural geography of health and cure “ considers this healing perspective and the influence of environment on individuals . He believes that factors such as nature , constructed environments and green spaces are influential in man’s spiritual health. Throughout this investigation, we refer to some cases of influence of vision on soul such as Ulrich’s theory of decreasing stress and anxiety. He thinks that natural environment creates a sense of refreshment and relief from nervous tension. In general, stress or spirit pressure is an interior mood which rises from physical wishes or social situations and is potentially destructive, uncontrollable and is dependent on more that one’s accommodation. So he introduced the mentioned descriptions for this word as a process not as a result. Also Kaplan explains the environmental influence on human and emphasizes that we can reach spiritual restoration by change in natural environment. According to this viewpoint, natural environment can decrease spiritual pressure and is influential in spiritual  improvement. Injuries arising out of tension and nervous crisis are the result of environmental change. Physical and spiritual consequences as well as pressures and exhaustion resulting from this crisis has encouraged the investigators to focus on nature and its effects on man’s mental health. Through these efforts and using mental health theories, one can achieve reorganization of spaces and improvement in the environmental quality. Since the aim of a healing garden is spiritual tranquility, the goal of this study is recognizing the healing effect of Iranian garden model. Perhaps this model can be used in contemporary urban designing. By means of connection with man through different senses, a healing garden creates a healing effect which is influential in decreasing spiritual pressures of daily life .It can be said that the secret lies in in man’s attraction toward nature, liveliness and tranquility. In this paper, in addition to describing the quality concepts of healing landscapes, I will explain the principles and factors shaping up these landscapes through seven sections from and will study these seven sections in three historical periods (Teiemouri , Qajar  and Safavieh ) of Iran. Analysis of healing landscapes in Iranian garden  model indicates that there is a close relation between these landscapes and man’s health. Through this comparative study we recognized the values of healing Iranian gardens. However, a lot of improvements have been achieved in our understanding and knowledge about the relation between landscape and human health. A key question is that how landscape can be influential in spiritual health?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mental health
  • Landscape & Health
  • healing landscape
  • Iranian healing garden