ورود فناوریهای نوین به سرزمینهایی که هویت و تاریخ غنی آنها در زمینه هنر و معماری در تقابل با نمودهای تکنولوژیک قرار دارند، چالشهایی را دامن میزند؛ چراکه در اکثر این جوامع همانند ایران، زیرساختهای لازم جهت مواجهه با موضوع جهانی شدن فراهم نبوده است. در هزاره جدید، جهانی تازه در دست ساخته شدن است و معماری اجتماعیترین هنری است که میتواند با ایجاد انسجام مکانی، نوعی تداوم زمانی را جهت شکوفایی تمدنی منجر شود.
پرسش اصلی و هدف نهایی پژوهش آن است که آیا میتوان شاخصهایی را جهت کاربرد فناوریهای نوین در راستای ارتقای کیفیات فضایی معماری معاصر با حفظ مبانی هویتی معماری ایرانی- اسلامی تعریف کرد؟ در این راه با انتخاب نمونههای موردی، انجام کار میدانی و نظرسنجی از افراد با استفاده از پرسشنامههای هدفمند ، شاخصهای بدست آمده از نتایج بررسیها به صورت کیفی و کمی تحلیل و الگویی جهت کاربرد فناوریهای نوین در معماری معاصر ارائه شده است. براساس نتایج این پژوهش بهرهگیری از فناوریهای نو در ترکیب با عناصر و فرمهای بومی و سنتی، هماهنگی با شرایط اقلیمی، حفظ ارزشهای فرهنگی- اجتماعی و اصول معماری بومی و همچنین استفاده از فناوریهای ساخت و مصالح جدید در ایجاد هماهنگی، تضاد، شفافیت و...، بسته به شرایط مکانیـ زمانی مهمترین شاخصهای ایجاد مطلوبیت در معماری معاصر ایران به شمار میآیند.
Evaluation of the Challenges of the application of new Technologies in Architecture: The Interaction with Iran’s Islamic Architectural Values
The new era is faced with daily growth of new data in different fields. The process of industrialization, globalization and networking, have evolved all societies and cultures. These developments contain matters such as global economy, communication revolution, environmental issues, restoration of local cultures and globalization of science and technology. Moreover, daily life in various aspects such as cultural, scientific-technological, economical, legal, political and security has been affected. In a more limited scale, only with the interpretation of technical developments, people’s mind are engaged with many challenges. Entrance of new technology and the creation of a technological society are proposed challenges and pluralism in the field of political, economical, cultural and social and the most important of them is cultural crisis. Because in comparison with elements such as land, race, ethnicity and so on, culture is considered as the most important element in defining identity. On the other hand, arrival of new technologies to the regions with rich identity and history in art and architecture are sometimes seen in contrast with the technological aspects and adds to the challenges; because in most of these societies, like Iran, necessary infrastructures are not provided in face of globalization. In the new millennium, new world is being built and architecture is the most social art that can cause the persistence of time to develop a civilization with spatial coherence.
Architecture, due to its direct contact with human life, in the face of globalization, plays an important role in deepening and weakening of culture and identity. Contemporary architecture of Iran due to the ever-changing needs of community and people in terms of physical, socio-cultural, economical and political issues, requires new solutions. All of these, besides the review of relation between modern technologies and the rich architectural history of Iran, makes the development of new architectural language in this era more complex and problematic. The main question of this research and the ultimate goal is to find out whether it can be possible to define some criteria for the application of new technologies, in order to enhance the spatial qualities of contemporary architecture with maintaining the basic identity of Iranian Islamic Architecture.
In the first stage, this paper with a holistic study and considering various ideas used in important architectural projects in Iran and other countries according to the main aims of this research, develops a theoretical framework and a methodology for conducting the research. Secondly, by examining the relationship between architecture and technology, Islamic concepts and theories are evaluated. Furthermore, basic principles of Islamic architecture in Iranian traditional buildings are analyzed in order to get the factors to obtain the main factors of desirability in these buildings and their application in contemporary architecture. In the next step, 14 cases of successful and famous examples of built architecture, implemented in different sites, are selected and the hypothesis of the paper is examined qualitatively by the consideration of these examples. A number of questionnaires are also prepared questioning the selected case-studies and the main objectives of the research. Main experts in the area of research are also interviewed in order to examine the hypothesis of the paper. On the basis of the results gained from the previous stages, the main criteria both qualitative and quantitative will be evaluated and a paradigm for the implementation of innovative technologies in contemporary architecture will be proposed.
At the present conditions and according to the undeniable role of science and technology in all areas, considering all possibilities and challenges, among, the correct way for today’s architecture in Iran is not to give up and not to complain, but to be a good actor in order to find the most suitable alternative for each architectural project. According to invaluable culture of Iran, preservation of native and national culture and identity is one of the main necessities of our architectural mission. This research is intended to come to a solution that not only consider and maintain the beauty of Iranian architecture during the history and consider environmental, socio-cultural and economical features of Iran, but also it is to benefit from world knowledge and technology in the best possible way. Therefore, the approach of this paper is called a “global-native” solution for contemporary architecture of Iran.
According to the results of this study, utilization of innovative technologies by considering the main features of Iranian architecture is a must for contemporary architecture. None of them are supposed to be considered separately as neglect of each of them may ruin both architectural identity and previous innovative technologies of Iranian architecture as can be seen in Persepolis many other traditional buildings in Iran. This paper also suggests that in the implementation of foreign construction technologies and materials in Iranian buildings, climatic and socio-cultural value of each part of Iran must be carefully considered. By considering all of these factors it is believed that high degree of desirability can be obtained in today’s architecture.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
new technologies, Art and Architecture, Islamic Architecture, identity, Architectural desirability