تحلیل و برنامه¬ریزی «شهر دوستدار کودک» (CFC) از دیدگاه کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه¬ریزی شهری، گروه جغرافیای دانشگاه زابل. ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه¬ریزی شهری دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

      تحقیق در حوزه شهرهای دوستدار کودک، به ویژه در اروپا، از سال‌های 1980 به بعد مورد توجه قرار گرفت. عمده این تحقیقات در راستای تخصیص حق شهروندی به بچه‌ها و رسیدگی به خواسته‌ها و نیازهای آنها بود. امروزه «شهر دوستدار کودک1» CFC)) مورد توجه برنامه‌ریزان و دست‌اندرکاران امور شهری قرار گرفته است، چرا که تعداد جمعیت کودکان مناطق شهری جهان (شهرهای کشورهای در حال توسعه) در حال افزایش هستند. پروژه‌های شهر دوستدار کودک به طور عمده ایجاد فرصتی برای کودکان در راستای شکل دادن و یا تغییر محیط پیرامونشان است. کودکان و نوجوانان به عنوان اعضای جامعه با مجموعه‌ای از خواسته‌ها و نیازهای خاص، استفاده‌کنندگان محیط ساختگی هستند. هدف مقاله حاضر، مشارکت کودکان در ایجاد محیط ساخته شده اطرافشان و در نتیجه تحلیل نظراتشان است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی - تحلیلی و مبتنی بر مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای، اسنادی و بررسی‌های میدانی است. با استفاده از متدولوژی گروه- بحث و روش‌ مشارکتی، نظرات و نقاشی‌های کودکان در ارتباط با وضعیت شهر قوچان و محیط زندگی‌شان جمع‌آوری و تحلیل شد. همچنین از یک گروه هدف به منظور استخراج نظرات دقیق‌تر در ارتباط با ویژگی‌های مورد نظر شهر دوستدار کودک جهت برنامه‌ریزی شهری استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد، اولین بار در سال 2007 میلادی «شهر بندیگو2» در استرالیا از طرف یونیسف به عنوان «شهر دوستدار کودک» و اولین شهری که تمام جنبه‌ها و ویژگی‌های یک شهر دوستدار کودک را از نظر یونیسف به خود اختصاص داده بود، معرفی و به رسمیت شناخته شد. «شهر اوز3» در استان فارس برای اولین بار در ایران، به عنوان «شهر دوستدار کودک» در سال 1389 انتخاب شده است. مطالعه موردی شهر قوچان نشان می‌دهد، قوچان گام‌های نخستین را جهت تحقق شهر دوستدار کودک طی می‌کنند؛ 64 درصد کودکان معتقد بودند تعداد زیادی درخت و فضای سبز و وسایل بازی مخصوص کودکان در محله خود ایجاد شود و با ارایه نظرات مختلف ضرورت توجه به مشارکت کودکاندرارتباطباموضوعطراحی و برنامه‌ریزی محیط‌های دوستدار کودک را در شهر قوچان مطرح کرده‌اند. تحلیل نظرات کودکان شهر قوچان به منظور تحقق «شهر دوستدار کودک»، سازمان‌های مؤثر و به ویژه شهرداری قوچان را به اتخاذ راهبردهای اجرایی و عملیاتی بیشتر تشویق می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Planning "Child-Friendly City" (CFC) from the perspective of children (Case study: Quchan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • akbar kiani 1
  • ali esmaeel zade kovaki 2
چکیده [English]

Research in the field of child friendly cities, especially in Europe, from 1980 onwards was considered. Much of these researches are about to allocation the right of citizenship to children and reaching to their demands and needs. The "Child-Friendly City" (CFC) has been considered by planners, urban affairs, and the world's population of children in urban areas (cities in developing countries) are on the rise. The purpose of recent paper is give participation opportunities to children in making their environment and discussion theirs ideas. Child-Friendly Cities" project is mainly to create opportunities for children in order to shape or change their environment. Children and young people as community members with a set of specific needs, users are artificial environments.
 
 
 
Research history
 
In recent years in developed countries has been done many studies about CFC. For first time in 2007 year Bendigo city known as first CFC by UNICEF, a city that specification all aspects of children right to it. In this city look at children rights as basic priority. In Iran this conception hasn’t very long age. Maybe can say for first time after Bam earthquake Unicef organization with corporation other institution`s for purpose of access to collective participation define it. In this project participate 6 to 13 years old children and offer their commends with different ways. Also by research institute of world children, Evaz city in Fars province chosen as CFC in Iran in 2000 [Esmaeilzadeh Kawaki, 2011, 146].
 
Shiyeh for first time in Iran write a book entitle "Prepare city for children's" in field of suitable urban spaces for children's that consider how to deal with children's also hint to their needs. As the meanest social groups in city of Tehran and also how city must provide the needs of children's and what are the exceptions of children from urban.
 
 
 
Methodology
 
The methodology is base on descriptive – analytical and also based on Liberian studies and fields surveys. Using group conversation methodology and participation way rewired on children's idea's about Quchan and their live hood environments. Also using a goal group to access exact results about visuals of CFC.
 
This paper tries to access answer of this question that of children's view, what is their suitable city?
 
This question rise of this assumption that base on existing views about CFC can with children's participation design their suitable city that is extract of suitable children city parameters. For answer to this question in Quchan city with using control analysis and group – conversation way's, with obtained material's such questionnaire, painting and interview. In this research use s goal group so that can gathering more characterizes about desired features in design CFC by children's. Group studied in this research chosen 40 persons between third, fourth and fifth levels of Meraji elementary school in Quchan randomly. In discussion group way was considered interview and engage of target groups. Instead of increasing number of tested peoples, access to exact result's with a goal group. In order to compatible our consumption with children's idea, more has been ideas that had more common visuals with children's idea.
 
 
 
Results
 
Study of Quchan show that Quchan is in the first levels of CFC. 64 percent of children's believe that so many trees, green space and children's game equipment must be install in their sectors and with present different idea's raised the necessity of consider to children participation in children environment plan and design.
 
Analysis of results to realization of CFC encourages positive organizations and municipality to take administrative and operational strategies. Most of children are in their painting's design a sector with suitable green space and open space and without pollution. Also most of children's design an immunity and safer environment in their paintings that show their unsuitable and un immunity content environments. Also they designed a city pattern that in it there is a special place for children's cinema. To show movies in children deserve. In questionnaire result's, only 32% go to school on foot, 46% with visual services and other's take this destination with their parent car's which this is very disturbing Issue because their parents or children's prefer going to school with services and their parent's car instead on foot going to school .
 
Results of Quchan city reveals more dimensions and wider context of subject which show must taking more attention to subject and scientific and administrative project's about CFC. Studies show, organization's which related to subject in levels (such UNICEF) and Iran level (intellectual development of children's had been some activity about CFC which it's a positive work to expanded of goals and ideas of CFC. But in Iran in general there isn't any specific action plan to implementing CFC in cities surfaces and visual in Quchan by effective organization such municipality. In order to can say that Iranian cities and Quchan are in elementary level of CFC. 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Child-Friendly City" (CFC)
  • Children's participation
  • Quchan