حکمت خالده و جایگاه طبیعت در جهان‌بینی و معماری معابد ادیان مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشکدة هنر و معماری واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکدة هنر و معماری واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

3 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت

چکیده

ادیان در جهان سنتی به عنوان عنصر غالب در تعیین خط فکری و آداب و منش‌های جوامع مطرح بوده و در شکل‌گیری و نحوة گسترش هنرها تأثیری ژرف داشته‌ به طوری که در جهان سنتی، دین با فلسفة زندگی و هنرها همزاد و همراه است.
 
طبیعت عنصری حائز اهمیت در ادیان و واجد جایگاهی متفاوت در ایدئولوژی‌ها بوده است، به طوری که در جهان‌بینی جوامع سنتی علی‌رغم تشابهاتی که در آنها دیده می‌شود، جایگاه طبیعت از عنصری که خود خداوند یا جزئی از خداوند به شمار می‌رفته تا عنصری شرّ و جایگاه زندگی شیطان متغیر بوده است. با این‌همه وجود عناصر مشترک طبیعت در شکل‌دهی به معماری به عنوان شاخه‌ای از هنرها که بیشترین قرابت با محیط و طبیعت را دارد، می‌تواند متأثر از ایدئولوژی‌هایی باشد که در ادیان با عنوان "حکمت خالده" مطرح است.
 
در این راستا پژوهش درصدد پاسخگویی به سؤالات زیر است:
 
آیا بینش‌های دینی متفاوت در مورد طبیعت باعث تفاوت‌هایی تأثیرگذار در معماری ادیان شده است؟
 
چه مباحث و عناصر مشترکی در ارتباط با طبیعت در معماری معابد ادیان مختلف وجود دارد؟
 
آیا حکمت خالده یا جاویدان خرد در حوزه آثار هنری مرتبط با ادیان، به ویژه معماری قابل گسترش است؟
 
روش پژوهش، تحلیلی و تفسیری- تاریخی است. ابزار و روش‌های گردآوری اطلاعات اسنادی، کتابخانه‌ای، تهیه فیش، نقشه‌ها و نمونه‌های آثار معماری هستند. روش تجزیه اطلاعات نیز استدلال قیاسی و استدلال استقرایی (استنتاجی) است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sophia Perennis and Nature Place in Ideology and Temples Architecture of Religious

نویسندگان [English]

  • hadi qodusifar 1
  • farah habib 2
  • mahtiam shahbazi 3
چکیده [English]

Religions were raised as the dominant elements in ideology and cultural manner of society in traditional world and had profound impact in shaping and developing of arts. Since the emergence of arts and religions, a deep relation between them can be identified. In fact, in the traditional world, all aspects of arts were affected by religions, and religions  had always used arts to promote their beliefs; and architecture is not exception of this rule. In fact, regarding to the architecture role in temples construction as a place for worship, it has had very important place between the arts which are related with religions.
 
Regarding to the different religions In the traditional world, although there are differences between different religions, but we can recognize some fundamental similarities between them on some of the basic cases. Some similarities between religions due to some philosophers discuss the issue which is titled "Sophia Pernnis" or "Pernnial Philosophy". Perennial philosophy is the philosophical concept, which states that each of the world’s religious traditions shares a single truth. Perennial philosophy asserts that there is a single divine foundation of all religious knowledge, referred to as the universal truth. Each world religion, independent of its cultural or historical context, is simply a different interpretation of this knowledge. Sophia Pernnis discusses about similarities between some aspects of deferent religions and the Nature is one of the most important cases of these issues.
 
Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, physical world, or material world. "Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. Nature is the phenomena of the physical world collectively, including plants, animals, the landscape, and other features and products of the earth, as opposed to humans or human creations. Regarding to the religions, it ranges in scale from the nature elements to the cosmic.
 
On the other hand, nature has had an important place in the beliefs of different religions, although it has been sacred in many religions despite the similarities which are in their ideology, its place has changed from an element that is God or a part of God to devil status. However, there are common elements of nature in shaping the temple architecture of different religions in traditional world and issues such as holy mountain, holy light and holy water are the most important examples of these cases. this research studies the role of these elements in temples architecture of different religions.
 
The main hypothesis of this study is that, as there is "Sophia Pernnis" in the philosophy of the religions, there are some similarities in the temples architecture which can be cited as "Sophia Perennis" in temples architecture. These article will examine these hypothesis regarding to the nature elements in different religions. Regarding to these issues, the article studies different religions beliefs (including Hindus, Buddhists, Ancient Greeks and Egyptians religions, Christianity and Islam) about the nature and its elements, and then studies the effect of their beliefs about the nature on their temple architecture.
 
In this context, this research seeks to answer the following questions:
 
What are the "Nature" places in different religions beliefs?
 
Are there any similarities in the religious beliefs about the place of the nature?
 
Have different religious insights about the nature caused effective differences in religions architecture?
 
What common issues are there in relation with the nature in different religions temples architecture?
 
Is Sophia Perennis expandable to the field of religious art and architecture?
 
The study finds that, as we can identified similarities between of all religious beliefs, regarding  to the nature, there are some fundamental similarities between religions temple architecture. So the meaning of "Pernnial Philosophy" or "Sophia Pernnis" can be extended to the architecture of religious temples and the meaning of "Sophia Pernnis" can be used in the field of arts and architecture.
 
The research methodology of this paper, is based on qualitative research and research methods are analytic and interpretation-historical. The research regarding to its application is a fundamental research and regarding to its data gathering method is a library research. Data collection tools and methods of this paper are documents, papers, book chapters and architecture maps and illustrations. Data analysis methods are deductive and inductive reasoning.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sophia Perennis
  • nature
  • temple architecture
  • Religion