محلات تاریخی برای زندهماندن، نیاز به تغییر دارند، البته تغییری که ارزشهای محله را نیز حفظ کند. ارزشها و معیارهای تغییر منتج از آنها، تاکنون توسط متخصصان با تأثیر از اسناد و نظرهای جهانی بهدستآمدهاند. در صورتی که با توجه به اینکه ارزشهای محله تاریخی از ابعاد کیفیت محیط است و این کیفیت توسط ساکنان بهعنوان اصلیترین ذینفعان محیط درک میشود، توصیف ارزشها و در نتیجه معیارهای تغییر ناشی از آن، در بیان مردم نسبت به متخصصان بسیار مهم است. بنابراین هدف اصلی مقاله، بیان ارزشهای محله تاریخی از دید ساکنان این محلهها و همچنین تعیین معیارهای تغییر در این بافتها از دید آنهاست. بر این اساس، مقاله پیش رو، با رویکرد کیفی و استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای عرفی و تلخیصی به یافتن ارزشهای محله تاریخی از دید ساکنان و معیارهای آنها جهت اعمال تغییر مناسب پرداخته است. شیوه مصاحبه نیمهعمیق با 18 نفر از ساکنان 3 محله تاریخی یزد (دارالشفاء، پشت باغ و سهلبنعلی) که در آنها تغییراتی نیز جهت بازآفرینی صورت گرفته است، برای جمعآوری اطلاعات استفاده شده است. یافتههای پژوهش با آنکه تفاوت چندانی بین نظر متخصصان و مردم در کلیات نشان نمیدهد، اما تحلیل مصاحبهها و کدهای ارایه شده توسط مردم، حاکی از اولویتبندی متفاوت در ارزشها و معیارها و زیرمعیارهاست. نتایج حاکی از اهمیت ابعاد اجتماعی و انسانی ارزشها در دیدگاه مردم نسبت به ابعاد کالبدی و اقتصادی، نگاه از درون به محلهها، سنگینی کفه حفاظت (اجتماعی) نسبت به توسعه اقتصادی و کالبدی و اهمیت معیار مشارکت مردم در مراحل تغییر به عنوان معیار اصلی است.
Values of Historical Neighborhood and Criteria of Change According to Residents
The historical neighborhoods need to change in order to survive; a change that conserve the values. Until now, the values and the criteria of change are resulted from global documents and experts’ opinions whose viewpoints have integrated conservation and regeneration approach. In this approach, the criteria are introduced as “Significance” and “Economic vitality”. Therefore, with respect to three values of historical urban fabric including “Historical value”, “Cultural value” and “Current value”; and according to the Principle of “harmony” whose interpretation comments two principles of "respect and preserve neighborhood values" and "do not imitate" included "respect to principles and values of present and future" and "respect to change" for continuity and sustainability of historical neighborhood in the past, present and future time; these criteria are represented by Criterion of “Respecting for and preservation of historical and cultural value of the neighborhood”, Criterion of “Preservation and upgrading the current value of the neighborhood” and Criterion of “The use of criteria what value to building of neighborhood for new design”. First criterion includes four sub-criteria “Observance of authenticity”, “Observance of integrity”, “Observance of identity and character” and “Observance of Continuation of collective memory and historical memory”. Second criterion includes four “Physical improvement”, “Economic improvement”, “Promotion of social capital” and “Functional improvement”. Accordingly, the "change" should be observed values of creation process itself, for example, the quality of the idea, quality of design and the quality of its relationship with the environment and nature", on the best possible level of compliance. However, considering the values as one of the dimensions of environment quality which are perceived by residents, people’s opinions on the values and change criteria are more important than experts. In this regard this article is going to find the values of the historical neighborhood from residents’ perspective and their criteria in order to apply the appropriate change. The Main question investigates how change in the historical neighborhood can upgrade the quality of these areas according to residents? Querying is found in form of qualitative paradigm and by content analysis method. Used approaches of content analysis in the article are Conventional Content Analysis and Summative Content Analysis. Information is achieved by Semi-depth interviews with eighteen persons of three historical neighborhoods of Yazd. These neighborhoods are Dar-osh-Shafa, Posht-e Bagh and Sahl-ebne-Ali that have been changed for regeneration. Interviewees include age groups of young, Middle-aged and elderly, both male and female. Having chosen the interviewees, opinions of large number of people about maintenance of historical urban fabrics are questioned. This is done for choosing people to whom maintenance of historical urban fabrics is valuable. Analysis considers similarity between opinions and does not focus on differences. Three main questions in the interview were “how do you describe historical and cultural neighborhood?”, “what are the potentials of historical neighborhood for upgrading its quality?”, and “how do you evaluate the effects of change in the neighborhood on its values?”. Codes are achieved by content analysis of interviews that clarify factors of historical neighborhoods values. According to residents’ opinions the values are "dating", "being unique", "beauty" and "harmony and unity" as items of historical value, "identity and character", "social capital" and "collective memories" as items of cultural value and "physical value", "value of function", "economic value", "social value" and "educational value" as items of current value. According to residents’ opinion, and based on the codes and respecting to the values, criteria of change in historical neighborhood are four criteria “Respecting for and preservation of historical and cultural value of the neighborhood”, “Preservation and upgrading the current value of the neighborhood”, “Public participation” and “The use of criteria what value to building of neighborhood for new design”. First criterion includes five sub-criteria “Observance of authenticity”, “Observance of harmony and unity”, “Observance of identity and character”, “Continuity of collective memories” and “Conservation of social capital”. Second criterion includes five sub-criteria “Physical improvement”, “Economic improvement”, “Conservation and promotion of social capital”, “Functional improvement” and “Conservation of educational value”. Third criterion is observed when residents participate throughout the process of change. According to the global documents and opinions, this criterion is indicator for observance of sub- criterion of “Promotion of social capital”. Results imply that little difference is observed between experts and residents opinions; but analysis of interviews and achieved codes from residents imply that difference is on prioritization of values, criteria and sub-criteria as well as residents’ emphasis on the social factors in the values, criteria and sub-criteria. This makes the criteria of public participation as one of the important criteria of evaluating changes in historical neighborhood. Also, results imply that residents emphasize on social-human dimensions rather than physical and economical ones, viewing from inside of neighborhood, conservation rather than physical and economical development, and public participation in whole of change phases.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Values of historical neighborhood, Criteria of change, Residents, Experts, Conservation and integrated regeneration