استادیار و عضوهیئت علمی دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان
با روی کارآمدن رضاخان، تفکرات شبه مدرنتیه در ایران شکل گرفت. و اجرای خیابانکشیها به عنوان اولین نمودهای شهرسازی مدرن بر بافتهای شهری قدیم اجرا شد. این امر نه تنها بر نظام محلهای و بازار به عنوان عمومیترین فضای شهری تأثیرات منفی گذاشت. بلکه بر ساختار فضایی و سلسله مراتب همپیوندی(دسترسی) شهری نیز آسیب رسانید. در دورههای قبل اگر بازار به عنوان ستونفقرات شهری نقش بازی میکرد با اجرای طرحهای خیابانکشی، بازار به حاشیه رانده شده و خیابان به عنوان لبه قدرتمند جایگزین بازار شد. طرح کارل فریش (میدان مرکزی شهر و شش خیابان منشعب و کمربندیهای آن) در دوره پهلوی اول یعنی از اواخر سال 1310 به بعد بر روی بافت قدیمی شهر همدان احداث شد. نوع تحقیق توصیفی – تحلیلی است. با استفاده از نقشه محوری شهر در سالهای 1297،1332و1393و نرمافزار Depthmap و تکنیک اسپیسسینتکس به تحلیل ساختار و همپیوندی شهر در دوره قبل و بعد از خیابانکشیها (که خود به دو مرحله قابل تقسیم است) پرداختهایم. طبق نتایج، ساختارمندی و انسجام بافت شهری نسبت به دوره قبل از خیابانکشیها تضعیف شده و از طرفی میزان همپیوندی (دسترسی) در قسمت بازار به شدت کاهش و از سوی دیگر، مقدار همپیوندی (دسترسی) خیابان افزایش یافت. از این دوره به بعد خیابان به عنوان ستونفقرات شهری معرفی میشود.
Evaluating Carl frish's Design on Spatial Structure Configuration Concerning Old Contexture in Hamadan (Using Space Syntax Technique)
By extinction of Qajar dynasty and Reza khan reign, pseudo modern thoughts were formed in Iran. The layout of streets design implemented as the first aspects of modern urbanization on old (ancient) contextures, and this not only had negative influence (effect) on sectional system and Bazaar as most general civil spaces, but also damaged the spatial structure and civil associated hierarchy (status quo). In pre courses, Bazaar played a role as civil back bone, while after this period the streets became powerful borders by implementation of the layout of and Bazaar’s powerful edge was replaced by street edges. As mentioned, layout of streets design implemented as the first aspect of modern urbanization, in some cities including Hamadan. Design preparation for Hamadan, was assigned to a German named Carl Frish whose plan was approved in October, 1931 and began in 1932 and finally completed simultaneously with the beginning of improvement and reconstruction design implementation of Joolan sector. During 1990s (Gregorian calendar) the plan was identical with a star which formed one square and six avenues branching from its center with angles of 60 degree. This paper uses descriptive – analytic method in research and utilizes space syntax and Depth map software to evaluate the effect of Carl Frish's process on Hamadan status. At first city map of Hamadan is studied at 3 courses, 1918-1932(before layout Streets), 1932-1960 (implementation of one square and six avenues) and 1960-2014(implementation of cingulated streets and completion of prepared project) followed by providing an axial map and city in foresaid software. According to the software results, the mean of total city association before layout of streets (at 1918) is equal with 0.311 and the most associated part of city in this era is the series of Bazaar( that consists of caravansaries and commercial building and shops) to maximum amount of associating 0.449. Meanwhile the amount of standard deviation which introduces solidarity of city is equal with 0.054 in this era. However, after the implementation of street design layouts according to Carl Frish (implementation of one square and six streets) the amount of total association has changed to 1.48 and increased the amount of standard deviation to 0.199. By completion of the design that is by formation of cingulated streets in 1990s (Gregorian Calendar), the average association reaches to 0.775 with the most association in Carl Frish's street and maximum amount of 1.46 with standard deviation of 0.209. As it is clear in relevant software, during the implementation of Carl Frish's design the amount of city associating has increased. It is also citable that the mentioned plan ( Carl Frish's plan) at the first course (1932 to 1953) towards the second course( 1960) has contained more amount of associating, which is signified that by formation of cingulated streets the amount of total city associating has reduced inside sectors. On the other hand in previous course of layout of streets associated part of city (Bazaar and its shops) are illustrated by color (red) which receded from hot color to cold colors (blue). While in next course (after formation of street) the amount of accessibility is possible. From this era to next (layout of street formation) the red color axis (street) is the most associating part of city and commercial spaces in these streets can be concessive of it. Although the amount of associating is increased, disregard of hierarchy of communication spaces is drastic. Associating reduction in Bazaar which once was the highest is not positive. In reviewing the urban structure it can be said that, although after implementation of street layouts, the amount of associating has increased. But regarding addition in the amount of standard deviation after layout of street, have been met at the reduction of structuralism and city coordination and balance collision and urban solidarity. In fact by formation of the six streets, Hamadan is tattered and missed its own coordination and civic solidarity. As it said maximum value of association is equal with 0.44 which belongs to main series (shops) of Bazaar in Hamadan, at pre course street layouts. While the maximum association at next course (1932-1953) is equal to 1.486 which belongs to formation of avenues in Carl Frish's project. As a result, in generation of these streets, Bazaar which had the most associated space lost its strength and the street as the most associated civil spaces were formed. After formation of cingulated streets, the maximum value of association is equal with 1.46 in next course (1960to decade 90), which belongs to Carl Frish's streets design. Streets of Carl Frish's resulted most association of civil space and it is manifested at its maximum value of association after formation after formation of cingulated streets which has diminished the important of pre course streets access. Eventually it seems that cingulated streets have undertaken the quantitative of access rate of the streets. • Generally we can summarize the influence of Carl Frish's project on status of Hamadan as follows: • To waste spatial hierarchy or hierarchy of connection ways. • To reduce association or Bazaar access which has been the most general civil space in Qajar era. • To present avenue as city backbone • To collide the spatial balance or civil structural system.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Carl Frish, Spatial Structure, Space Syntax, access, street implementation