Quantitative Explanation and Evaluation of the Qualitative Factors of Public Spaces Using the Space Syntax Method (Case Study: Ferdows Garden in Tehran)

Document Type : Research Article


Ph.D. in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Iran.


Problem statement: To increase the efficiency of the social function of the public space, urban researchers have listed many features in various conceptual models. It seems that these qualitative characteristics can be categorized under the configuration of space to converge the concepts and to evaluate them quantitatively.
Research objective: There is a cause-and-effect relationship between the qualitative factors that influence the ability of a space to shape public urban life. These factors can be evaluated through quantitative and qualitative methods. This research tries to put the necessary factors that increase the quality of the space in a more comprehensive category and evaluate them through the integration of the above methods.
Research method: The present study is applied research in terms of purpose. It used a descriptive-analytical method. First, qualitative variables effective in constructing and forming public spaces were identified and categorized by reviewing the literature. The factor of accessibility was identified as a common factor that all theoreticians have emphasized. This factor was considered to be the basis of using the space syntax method. The space syntax evaluated the qualitative characteristics of the space at the macro level. Then the results were discussed using logical reasoning.
Conclusion: The findings of the research showed that the analysis of spatial qualities can be defined in a two-step process: first, in an initial evaluation, the public space is analyzed at the macro level through axial maps based on the level of accessibility and mobility, which is the basis and foundation of spatial qualities. In the second stage, to measure how the space is experienced by the users, a micro-scale investigation should be done on the site by referring to analytical techniques such as questionnaires, mapping, surveys, etc.


Ashrafi, Y., Pourahmad, A., Rahnemaie, M. & Rafieian, M. (2014). Conceptualization and typology of contemporary urban public space. Geographical Urban Planning Research (GUPR), 2 (4), 435-464.
Baghernejad Hamzehkolaee, B. (2023). Action-Perception Spaces: Analysis of the Impact of SpaceTime Theories on Creating Organized Patterns in Public Spaces [(Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis in Architecture), University of Tehran, Kish International Campus.
Baghernejad Hamzehkolaee, B., Haghir, S. & Khaghani, S. (2023). Boolean Reading of Social Movements Using Space-Time Theories. Bagh-e Nazar, 19 (116), 41-54.
Bahrainy, S. H. & Taghabon, S. (2012). Testing the application of Space Syntax method in the design of traditional urban spaces. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 3 (4), 5-18.
BanderAbad, A. R., Moradi, V., Kavoshnia, H. & Aali, H. (2015). Study on the concept of urban public areas and the Frankfurt School of critical theory in review. International Journal of Urban and Rural Management, 39 (14), 263-290.
Barati, N. & Khademi, S. (2018). Urban Public Spaces: Needs and Obstacles; Case Study: Vali-ye Asr Crossroad intersection in Tehran. MANZAR, 10 (44), 18-23.
Babo, I. & Silva, C. M. (2015). Public Sphere and Collective Action. the Portuguese Movement of the “15th September”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6 (425), 425-433.
Bourne, A. (2017). Social Movements as ‘Arenas’ and ‘Actors’ in Transnationalizing Public Spheres. Journal of Civil Society, 13 (3), 223-230.
Cihangir Çamur, K., Roshani, M. & Pirouzi, S. (2017). Using Space Syntax to Assess Safety in Public Areas - Case Study of Tarbiat Pedestrian Area, Tabriz-Iran. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 245 (8), 1-9.
Collins, P. (1998). Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture, 1750-1950 (H. Hasanpour, Trans.). Tehran: Ghatreh. [in Persian]
Frouzandeh, M. R. & Mansouri, S. A. (2019). A Reflection on The Placiality of Social Formations in Urban Spaces Based on Georg Simmel’s “Sociology of Space” A Case Study of Enqelab Street (between Vali-asr Intersection and Enqelab Square) In Tehran. Bagh-e Nazar, 16 (73), 65-76.
Ghezelsofla, M. T. & Doostmohammadi, H. (2018). The association between linguistic turn and Habermas’s critical thoughts: Its application to Iranian public sphere. Sociology of Social Institutions, 4 (10), 263-292.
Habermas, J. (2013). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (J. Mohammadi, Trans.). Tehran: Afkar.[in Persian]
Harvey, D. (2008). The Dialectics of Spacetime. In B. Ollman, & T. Smith, Dialectics for the New Century. London: Palgrave Macmillan .
Hillier, B. (2007). Space is the machine. London: Space syntax.
Jayhani, M. & Mansori, S. (2012). Bazyabi sakhtar fazaee va shekl Bagh Ferdows Shemiran [Discovery of the spatial structure and shape of Shemiran Ferdows garden]. Journal of Maremat & Me’mari-e Iran, 2 (3), 79-96.
Joseph, I. (1993). Public spaces and visibility. Architecture and Behavior, 3 (9), 403-407.
Lak, A. & Jalalian, S. (2022). The Experience of the Meaning of Place in Urban Spaces: Using Qualitative Content Analysis to Define the Meaning of Bagh-e Ferdows. Journal of Iranian Architecture Studies, 7 (13), 71-87.
Lefebvre, H. (1991). The Production of Space (D. Nicholson-Smith, Trans.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Lim, M. (2014). Seeing spatially: people, networks, and movements in digital and urban spaces. International Development Planning Review, 36 (1), 51-72
Madanipour, A. (2003). Public and Private Spaces of the City. New York: Routledge.
Mansouri, M. A. & Atashinbar, M. (2014). Qualitative Enhancement of Tehran Urban Landscape at the Intersection of Street and Public Spaces. MANZAR, 6 (28), 12-17.
Medghalchi, L., Ansari, M. & Bemanian, M. (2014). Spirit of Place in Persian Garden. Bagh-e Nazar, 11 (28), 25-38.
Pourahmad, A., Ziari, K., Hataminejad, H. & Rezaeinia, H. (2018). An Analysis on the Nature of Public Space in Large-scale Urban Tourism Projects based on “Social Production of Space” Theory (case study: Tehran). Urban Tourism, 5 (2), 135-159.
Rabiee, A., Alikhani, Z. & Gholami, F. (2012). An Analysis of Social and Political Weblogs with Public Sphere Theory. Global Media Journal-Persian Edition, 7 (2-14), 90-123.
Rafieian, M. & Seifaee, M. (2005). Faza-ha-ye omoumi shari, baznegari va arzyabi keyfi [Urban public spaces, qualitative review and evaluation]. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 23 (23), 35-42.
Ravazzoli, E. & Torricelli, G. P. (2017). Urban mobility and public space. A challenge for the sustainable liveable city of the future. The Journal of Public Space, 2 (2), 37-50.
Razzaghi Asl, S. & Khoshghadam, F. (2016). Environmental Quality Assessment of Tehran’s Recent Urban Design Projects, Based on Place Check Technique in Experts and Public View Point. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 9 (16), 115-127.
Rismanchian, O. & Bell, S. (2010). The application of space Syntax in studying the structure of the cities. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 2 (43), 49-56.
Salehi Mava, F., Khatami, S. M. & Ranjbar, E. (2022). An Analysis on the Factors Affecting the Creation of Event-Oriented Urban Public Spaces Case Study: Central Part of Tehran (District 12). Bagh-e Nazar, 19 (106), 85-98.
Sohrabi, N. M. (2016). Coffee shop (Café), Public Sphere for Further Reflections on Social Movements (Case Study: Tehran, capital of Iran), Blog Tehran: Water, City, People - A project of the UC Irvine Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture. Retrieved from http://sites.uci.edu/tehranproject/2016/02/18/coffee-shop-cafe-public-sphere-for-further-reflections-on-social-movements/.
Stipcic, M. (2016). Synergy between public space politics and mobility strategies. A: Seminario Internacional de Investigación en Urbanismo. “VIII Seminario Internacional de Investigación en Urbanismo, Barcelona-Balneário Camboriú, Junio”. Barcelona: DUOT.
Tonkiss, F. (2006). Space, the city, and Social Theory: Social Relations and Urban Forms. Cambridge: Polity.
Zarabadi, Z., Habib, F. & Takalou, S. (2015). Site Selection Of Safe Public Spaces In Urban Neighborhoods by using space syntax method (Case study: Vardavard Neighborhoods In Tehran). Journal of Urban - Regional Studies and Research, 7 (26), 1-22.