Production and Reproduction of Space in the Second Cycle of Capital Accumulation; A Critique of Everyday Life in Lived Space

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor and Faculty Member, Department of Human Geography, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Problem statement: Lefebvre’s space enters the social realm by departing from the infinite space of mathematicians and the mental space of philosophers. According to Lefebvre, this space is both produced and consumed and is in a sense, a kind of manufactured commodity as well as a consumable product. The overlapping of material production, the production of ideology and the production of meaning in one place and at a time are recognized as key elements of the production of social space that is reproduced in a trialectical rather than a dialectical process. The overlapping of Lefebvre’s theory with the secondary circuit of capital accumulation claimed by Harvey has a profound effect on the concretization of capitalist function. The process of space production and reproduction in the second cycle of capital accumulation carries the products that most left-wing thinkers attribute to the reactionary ways of civilization. What is more important than the productions of capitalist space is the analysis of the process of production and reproduction of space in the second cycle, in which Harvey is known as a pioneer and main descriptor of Lefebvre’s theories. Interpolation and analysis of Lefebvre and Harvey’s theories on the critique of everyday life and how to escape the space of capital and the trialectic cycle are the main issues in this study.
Research objectives: The main purpose of this study is to critique everyday life in a lived space filled with the domination of capital by analyzing the processes of space production and its products, based on the Lefebvre and Harvey intellectual apparatus and their theoretical commonalities.
Research method: This is a fundamental research that is descriptive-analytical. The main issue has been explored using genuine reference sources and finally the critique of everyday life in the Lived Space.
Conclusion: This research has been conducted based on the hypothesis that “the everyday life of citizens in the Lived Space or the second cycle of capital accumulation implies citizens’ objectivity and passivity and consumerism” based on which we conclude that the capitalist space is moving with the proponents of the trialectical process towards the establishment of a passive (consumerist) citizen and the establishment of subject and object, whose effects also govern the Lived Space in addition to the urban space.


Aglietta, M. (1998). Capitalism at the Turn of the Century, Regulation Theory and the Challenge of Social Change. London: Verso Books.
Apostol, I. (2007). The production of public spaces: design dialectics and pedagogy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.
Balaban, O. (2010). Capital accumulation, the state and the production of built environment, the case of Turkey. Doctoral dissertation at Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University.
Butler, Ch. (2003). Law and the social production of space. Doctoral dissertation at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Castells, M. (1997). The Rise of the Network Society. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Chomsky, N. (1992). Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. New York: Panthenon Books.
Chomsky, N. (1997). Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press
Das, R. J. (2009). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, s.v. “Capital and Space”. doi:10.1016/b978-008044910-4.00137-1
Engels, F. (1987) The Condition of the Working Class in England. New York: Penguin Books.
Feldman, M. (2015). The urban process under distinct accumulation regimes: a research strategy, Paper presented at Research & Regulation Conference, University of Paris.
Freeman, C & Louca, F. (2002). As Time Goes by: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Friedman, M. (1962). Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goonewardena, K. (2008). Space, Difference, Everyday Life, Reading Henri Lefebvre. London: Routledge Harvey, D. (1985). The Urbanization of Capital, Studies in the History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanization. New York: John Hopkins University.
Harvey, D. (2004). Space as a keyword. Paper presented to Marx and Philosophy Conference, Institute of Education, London, Retrived from
Harvey, D. (2010). The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Harvey, D. (2012). Rebel Cities, From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London: Verso Books
Harvey, D. (2014). Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hayek, F. (1944). Road to Serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. (1948). Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hesketh, Ch. (2008). Spaces of capital/spaces of resistance, Mexico and the global political economy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham.
Hope, W. (2006). Global capitalism and the critique of real time. Time & Society. 15(2-3), 17-25.
Jessop, B. (2000). The state and the contradictions of the knowledge driven economy. In J. R. Bryson, P. W. Daniels, N. D. Henry, & J. Pollard (Eds.), Knowledge, Space, Economy. London: Routledge
Khan, D., & Karak, A. (2019). Urban development by dispossession: planetary urbanization and primitive accumulation. Studies in Political Economy, 99(3), 307-330.
Lefebvre, H. (1973). The Survival of Capitalism, Reproduction of the Relations of Production (F. Bryant, Trans.). New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Lefebvre, H. (1991a). Critique of Everyday Life (vol. 1, J. Moore, Trans.). New York: Verso.
Lefebvre, H. )1991b). The Production of Space (D. Nicholson-Smith, Trans.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Lefebvre, H. (2002). Critique of Everyday Life, Foundations for a Sociology of the Everyday (vol. 2, J. Moore, Trans). New York: Verso Books.
Lefebvre, H. (2008). Critique of Everyday Life, From Modernity to Modernism, Towards a Metaphilosophy of Daily Life (vol. 3 G. Elliott, Trans.). London and New York: Verso Books.
Lewis, J. (2013). Beyond Consumer Capitalism, Media and the Limits to Imagination. London: John Wiley.
Lok Tse, Ch. (2014). Capitalism, ecological crisis and the end of history. Doctoral dissertation at Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
Marx, K. (1844). Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. Retrived from
Marx, K. (1867). Capital (vol. 1). London: Penguin.
Marx, K. (1885). Capital (vol. 2). London: Penguin.
Marx, K. (1981). Capital (vol. 1). New York: Vintage.
Marx, K. )1988). Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (M. Milligan, Trans.). New York: Prometheus Books.
Marx, K. (1993). Grundrisse. New York: Penguin Books
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (2007). Wage and Labor Capital. Retrived from
Moreno, L. (2014). The urban process under financialised capitalism. City, 18(3), 244–268.
Mueller, G. E. (1958). The Hegel legend of thesis-antithesis-synthesis, History of Ideas, 19(3), 411-414.
Piketty, Th. (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Harvard: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Pillai N., V, (2013). You Cannot Swim Twice in the Same River: The Genesis of Dialectical Materialism. Munich: University Library of Munich.
Reich, R. (1991). The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st Century Capitalism. New York: Vintage.
Shields, R. (1999). Lefebvre, Love and Struggle: Spatial Dialectics. New York: Routledge
Smith A. (1973). The Wealth of Nations. New York: The Modern Library.
Stiglitz, J. (2016). Inequality and economic growth. In M. Jacobs and M. Mazzucato (Ed.), Rethinking Capitalism: economics and policy for sustainable and inclusive growth (pp. 134–155). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Thacker, A. (2003). Moving through Modernity, Space and Geography in Modernism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Vernon, M & Briggs, J. (1994). American-Style capitalism and income disparity: the challenge of social anarchy, Journal of Economic Issues, 32(2), 473–480.
Williams, C. C., & Round, J. (2010). The shallow and uneven diffusion of capitalism into everyday life in Post-Soviet Moscow. Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe, 18(1), 53–69.
Zieleniec, A. (2007), Space and Social Theory. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications Ltd.