An Assessment Model for Challenges of Urban Management System in Iranian New Towns, Based on Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) Approach

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Candidate, Department of Urban Development, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Development, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran, Iran


Problem Statement: Regarding the nature of the New Towns in Iran, the attempt to have a desirable habitation and an expected level of urban qualified life by residents in these settlements is faced with multiple challenges.
Aims: This research aims at presenting an evaluative model of the urban management challenges in New Towns based on the interpretive structural modeling approach.
Methodology: In the present study, the interpretive structural modeling is used to map the hierarchical relationships of the main factors. Hence, the main sources of data in this study are the opinions of a panel of experts in this field. In this method, the initial self-interaction matrix is created and the final reachability matrix is drawn. Thereafter, the variables are ranked and their relationships are clarified and clustered.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the factors are ranked in six groups that are included in the cause and effect diagram as follows: the “environmental” factors at the first level, the “social and cultural” factors at the second level, the “facilities and services” at the third level, the “administrative and institutional” factors and “urban development and architecture” factors at the fourth level, the “financing and budgeting” factors at the fifth level and finally the “planning and policy-making” and “legal” factors at the sixth level. Moreover, the clustering of factors showed that the two “planning and policy making” factors and “legal” factors are recognized as independent driving factors. In addition, “urban development and architecture”, “administrative and institutional”, “financing and budgeting”, and “environmental” factors were identified as intermediary factors. Finally, the “facilities and services”, and “social and cultural” factors were considered as dependent ones. None of the factors were clustered as autonomous. The results of this research can help planners and policy-makers to review the urban management system of New Towns for further improvement of the system structure and enhancing the ability of facing the challenges and improving the quality of life for citizens of these towns.


• Aeeni, M. (2014). Urban management in Iran from the perspective of the laws. Tehran: Rayehe-ye Tasnim.
• Aeeni, M., Zabihi, H. & Saeideh Zarabadi, Z. S. (2018). Investigating the challenges of urban management system in New Towns of Iran. Journal of Urban Economics and Management, 7(27), 111-124.
• Arjmandnia, A. (1999). Hayat-e Ejtemaei dar Shahr-e Jadid [Social Life in New Town]. Abadi, 8(29) 41-50.
• Attri, R., Grover, S., Dev, N. & Kumar, D. (2013). An ISM approach for modelling the enablers in the implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, 4(4), 313-326. doi: 10.1007/s13198-012-0088-7e
• Bourbourajdari, M. & Bourbourajdari, M. (2016). Conceptual model of patterning properly residential parcels in New Towns using location-based data analysis: A case study of Pardis town. Studies of Geography, Civil Engineering and Urban Management, 2(1), 36-44.
• Chaharrahi, Z. (2009). An analysis of the physical divisions of Shiraz city based on integrated urban management (Master's Thesis in Geography and Urban Planning). University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
• Chidambaranathan, S., Muralidharan, C. & Deshmukh, S. (2009). Analyzing the interaction of critical factors of supplier development using Interpretive Structural Modeling—an empirical study. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 43(11-12), 1081-1093. doi: 10.1007/s00170-008-1788-7.
• Dastan, M. (2005). The position of New Towns in sustainable development. Proceedings of New Town Development Company (Vol. III). Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Dubey, R. & Ali, S. (2014). Identification of Flexible Manufacturing System Dimensions and Their Interrelationship Using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling and Fuzzy MICMAC Analysis. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 15(2), 131-143. doi: 10.1007/s40171-014-0058-9
• Emami, M. & Arab, N. (2017). Review of the Indicators of New city Location. Journal of Human and Environment, (41), 131-143.
• Gharekhloo, M. & Abedini, A. (2009). Assessing the challenges and problems of New Towns and their success in Iran: Sahand New Town. MODARES- Olum-e Ensani, 13(1), 165-191.
• Habibi, S. M. (2005). New Towns, a threshold for the development of urban memory and recollection. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Towns. Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Harati, S. & Zivyar, P. (2012). Jaygah-e Shahr-ha-ye Jadid dar Nezam-e Shahri [The position of New Towns in the urban system].Tehran: Jahad Daneshgahi Publications, Shahid Beheshti Branch.
• Hataminejad, H., Zamani, Z., Hajinejad, S. & Ghazayi, M. (2013). Pathology of New Towns in Iran. Geographical Data (SEPEHR), 22 (88), 47-57.
• Heydari, J. (2014). A survey of the necessity of creating a Newtown; Aalishahr and its performance evaluation. Journal of Spatial Planning, 3 (14), 115-134.
• Hojjati, N. & Nematimehr, M. (2017). New Town of Hashtgerd cultural planning. Soffeh, 27(77), 79-98.
• Hosainzadeh Dalir, K., Pourmohammadi, M. & Seyyedfatemi, S.
M. (2011). The Study the Necessity of New Towns Creation in Iranian Urban System. Journal of Geography and Planning, 16(38), 1-18.
• Hornby, A. (2004). Oxford advanced learner's dictionary of current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• Jharkharia, S. & Shankar, R. (2005). IT-enablement of supply chains: understanding the barriers. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 18(1), 11-27. doi: 10.1108/17410390510571466
• Irandoost, K. & Amini, A. (2011). Assessment of the Management Challenges of Towns from the Influential Groups Viewpoint. Journal of Urban Studies, 1(1), 91-108.
• Jalali, D. (2010). Shahrdari-ha va Modiriyat-e Bahrebardari dar Shahr-ha-ye Jadid [Municipalities and utilization management in New Towns]. Publications of the Municipalities, 11(99), 41-47.
• Javad Shahidi, K. (1998). Moghadame’ei bar Mafahim-e Noshahr-ha az Aghaz ta Emrooz [Introduction to the concepts of new cities, from the beginning to the present]. Tehran: Pajoohandeh Publication.
• Kazemian, Gh., Salehi, E., Ayazi, S.M., Nozarpour, A., Imanijajromi, H., Saeedirezvani, N. & Abdollahi, M. (2013). Modiriyat-e Shahri (Vol. I): Mabani va Hoze-ha [Urban management (Vol. I): Principles and Areas]. Tehran: Tisa.
• Kohankhaki, S. (2015). Shenasayi-e Avamel-e Hayati-ye Movafaghiat-e Tejarat-e Sayyar ba Rouykard-e Tafsiri-Sakhtari [Identification of the key factors in the success of commerce using an interpretative structural Modeling]. Bazaryabi-ye Pars Modir, 1, 111-122.
• Majlis Research Center (2001). New Towns: measuring failures and proposing solutions for the future (No. 6206, Subject Code 410). Tehran: Majlis Research Center, Infrastructure Office.
• Mangla, S., Madaan, J., Sarma, P. & Gupta, M. (2014). Multi-objective decision modelling using interpretive structural modelling for green supply chains. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 17(2), 125. doi: 10.1504/ijlsm.2014.059113
• Meshkini, A., Soleimani, M., Azizi, H., Zareyi, M. & Zarepisheh, N. (2013). Evaluating the degree of goals achievement of New Towns in Iran (A case study of Sadra New Town). Shahr-ha, 1(1), 29-41.
• Mirian, S. M. (2006). Tajarob-e Ijad-e Shahr-ha-ye Jadid dar Iran va Jahan [Experiences of creating New Towns in Iran and the world]. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Towns. Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Mozayeni, M. (1994). Maghalati dar Bab-e Shahr va Shahrsazi [Articles on city and urban planning]. Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
• Nandakumar, M. K., Jharkharia, S. & Nair, A. S. (Eds.) (2014). Organizational flexibility and competitiveness. New Delhi: Springer India.
• Nassiri, E. & Baba, A. (2014). Shahr-ha-ye Jadid va Tosse’yePaydar-e Shahri [New Towns and Sustainable Urban Development]. National Conference on Civil Engineering, Architecture and Sustainable Urban Management. Gorgan: National Standards Organization.
• New Towns Development Company (2006). Statement of the International Conference on New Towns. Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Piran, P. (2006). Shahr-ha-ye Jadid, Bi-tarikh va bedun-e Farhang: Mas’ale-ye Hoviatyabi [New Towns, without history and culture: identity issues]. Proceedings of identity of New Towns. Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Rafieian, M. & Mahmoodi, M. (2014). Evaluation of location modeling of New Towns in Tehran using multivariate evaluation. Geography and Development Iranian Journal, 12(36), 109-122.
• Raut, R., Priyadarshinee, P., Gardas, B. & Jha, M. (2018). Analyzing the factors influencing cloud computing adoption using three stage hybrid SEM-ANN-ISM (SEANIS) approach. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 134, 98-123. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2018.05.020
• Saeedirezvani, N., Abdollahi, M., Ayazi, S.M., Nozarpour, A., Imanijajromi, H., Kazemian, Gh. & Salehi, E. (2013). Modiriyat-e Shahri (Vol. I): Barrasi-ye Tatbighi-ye Nezam-e Modiriat-e Shahri dar Keshvar-ha-ye Nemooneh [Urban management (Vol. III): Comparative study of urban management system in sample countries]. Tehran: Tisa.
• Sarvar, R., Tavakoli, M. & Boheiraee, H. (2016). Barnamerizi va Modiriyat-e Shahr-ha-ye Jadid: Tose’e-ye Ejtemaei va Sarzandesazi-ye Shahri [Planning and management of new cities: social development and urban vitality]. Tehran: Armed Forces Geographical Organization.
• Saeedian, A. (2008). Shenakht-e Shahr-ha-ye Iran [Understanding the cities of Iran. Tehran: Elm-o zendegi publications.
• Seyyedjavadin, S.R., Hashemi, M. & Mahmoudian, O. (2016). A model for explaining social responsibility in oil and gas companies using Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM), Journal of Public Administration. 8(1), 75-92.
• Shoul, A. & Sadeghi, S. (2017). Presenting an Interpretive Structural modeling Approach of Agility Criteria (Case Study: Fajr Jam Gas Refinery). Journal of Industrial Management, 12(40): 63-80.
• Sayyafzadeh, A. (2013). Modiriat-e Shahri-ye Kalanshahr-e Tehran: Forsat-ha va Chalesh-ha [Tehran metropolis urban management: opportunities and challenges]. Tehran: Amirkabir publications.
• Tabrizi, J. (2006). Negahi be Mabani-ye nazari-ye Sakht-e Shahr-ha-ye Jadid dar Iran [A look at the theoretical foundations of New Towns in Iran]. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Towns. Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Talachian, M. (2004). Negahi be Shahr-ha-ye Jadid [A look to the new cities]. Tehran: New Towns Development Corporate publications.
• Van Dijk, M. (2014). Managing cities in developing countries: the theory and practice of urban management. Tehran: Tisa
• Zamani, B. & Arefi, M. (2013). Iranian New Towns and their Urban Management Issues: A critical review of influential actors and factors. Cities, 30(1), 105-112. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2012.01.003
• Zebardast, E. & Jahanshahloo, L. (2007). A Survey about Hashtgerd New City Operation in Surplus Population Attraction.
Geography and Development Iranian Journal, 5(10), 5-22.
• Ziari, K. (2006). The planning and functioning of New Towns in Iran. Cities, 23(6), 412-422. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2006.08.006
• Ziari, K. & Gharekhloo, M. (2009). A Study of Iranian New Towns during Pre- and Post-Revolution. International Journal of Environmental Research, 3(1), 143-154. doi: 10.22059/IJER.2009.43
• Ziari, K. (2015). Barnamerizi-ye Shahr-ha-ye Jadid [Planning of New Towns]. Tehran: Samt Publications.
• Zivyar, P. & Rajabi, A. (2008). The spatial expansion of Tehran and the necessity of creating new cities with emphasis on Pardis. Territory, 5(19), 53-65.