The Representation of the Mother Archetype in the Historical Architecture of Iran Based on Jung’s Views

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Architecture,Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture,Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


The collective unconscious psyche of humans consists of archetypes represented through their choices, rituals and their behaviors in symbolic forms. Architecture is one of the media that can be the incidence area of unconscious psyche archetypes by reflecting these symbols, and mother is one of the most important archetypes.
Problem Statement: The mother is more symbolic for the male gender, and the Iranian historical architecture is apparently a masculine arena. So, the pursuit of the representation of this archetype in the architecture of Iran is meaningful. The issue of this research is a psychoanalytic reading of Iranian historical architecture by finding the representation of the mother archetype in the works of Iranian historical architecture. The study of the works of Iranian historical architecture often includes theological, technical, historical criticisms or decoding of visual symbols based on religious culture; whose foundations are mostly wisdom-oriented. Therefore, the gap of psychoanalytic criticisms is evident in Iran›s architecture.
Aims: The aim of this research is to investigate the fundamental concepts of the Iranian historical architecture by taking an interdisciplinary approach and providing new perspectives beyond the general view of the research so far done.
Question: How has the Iranian architecture been influenced by the collective unconscious? What arerepresentations of the mother archetype in Iranian architecture?
Methodology: Qualitative and fundamental research is based on descriptive-analytic method. Data have been collected based on documentary and library studies.
Conclusion: The research suggests that the notion of the motherland is the source of holiness in the unconsciousness of Iranians and, the mother archetype in Jung’s signs have been appeared in the architectural spaces through the blending of these spaces with the earth and its complications.


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