Developing a Conceptual Model for Place Branding: A Review of Theoretical Literature


1 Ph.D. Scholar in Urban Design, Department of Urban Planning and Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran

2 Department of Urban Planning & Design, Faculty Of Art & Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University

3 Associate. Prof., Department of urban and regional planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Place branding has been adopted by policymakers and decision makers since 1990s to promote the place competition forattracting financial and human capital . This concept is discussed in various scientific disciplines. Each field has conceptualized this concept in a different way. Thus, the present study attempts to clarify the dimensions of this concept with a step-by-step approach. The aim of this study is to provide a background and theoretical basis for the concept of «place brand" and "place branding» in a conceptual model which clarify the different dimensions of place branding. Therefore, in this study a depth analysis will be done in the literature to explain the concepts, approaches, models, scales and methods of assessment. Descriptive-analytic research method was used in this present study.
The results showed that despite extensive theoretical literature about place brand and place branding, yet there is no consensus on it. The variety of disciplines involved in this topic (such as economics and marketing, social sciences, political science, environmental sciences) reflects the various dimensions that have been added to the concept of place branding.
In this research, three periods for place brand is depicted: past, present and future. In this progress, the concept of place branding has evolved from a marketing tool to an approach to involving various dimensions of urban planning and management. In these periods, place branding has changed from a monotonic phenomenon which is based on visual and tangible dimensions and a top-down process to the multifaceted, interdisciplinary, interactive, and collaborative concept. Finally, by summarizing the concepts which is explored and refined, the theoretical and conceptual model for place branding is presented.


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