The Mystical Symbols in the Images of the Hell of the Mir Heydar Miraj Name

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor, Faculty Member of Islamic Art, University of Tabriz.

2 instructer Tabriz Islamic Art university

3 Graduate Masters of Islamic Arts, Islamic Art, University of Tabriz.


According to the religions, Hell  is the place in the other world, where the sinners are punished in various forms. The description of this issue is detailed in the Holy Qur’an and related narrative to the ascension in Islamic thought , and its representation can be seen in Islamic painting, especially in Iranian illustrated manuscripts. One of the manuscripts in which the subject of Hell was widely illustrated, are copies of the famous of Mir Heydar’s Miraj Name,  Which relates to the Timurid age. According to the spiritual nature of the subject on the one hand and the mystical context of the Timurid age, on the other hand, the painters of this version have used mystical symbols in the creation of images frequently.
The purpose of this article is to achieve the visual interpretation of Hell and its Qur’anic narrative by the Timurid painters, which includes the Qur’an and hadiths. The present paper, which is a library method, identifies and explores the mystical symbols in these images by analyzing the descriptive method and examining 16 inferiors of this version.
Therefore the research question is that the Mir Heydar Miraj Name’s illustrators reference to which of the mystical symbols used to express the image of hell ?
The results show that the painters, in In addition to illustrating the literary narrative, the photographers have also expressed their symbolic meanings. This This expression is seen in a variety of visual approaches that synchronize with mystical symbols. Symbols such as fire, darkness, thorns, chains; the fire, which sees concepts like love, greed, austerity, lust and devil as an instance of it,and darkness is the source of soul in the spiritual world , In fact, the transplantation of the soul into the body are a descending from the light to the dark world, darkness because of getting away from its essence. These mystical concepts in the pictures of this version are references to their illustrious pictorial view, thus the apparent meaning of the story, giving rise to the inner meaning of which is the same as the teaching of religious doctrines.


Amid, H. (1995). Amid dictionary, Vol. 1 and 2. 10th ed. Tehran: Amir Kabir Publishing press.
Amoli, S. H. (1989). Game Al-Asrar and Manba Al-Asrar. Translated by: Tabatabai, S. J. Tehran : Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company.
Attar, M. I. A. (1995). Mantegh al-Teyr, to make efforts and to correct: Sadegh Goharin. Tehran : Scientific and Cultural Publications.
Dehkhoda, A. A. (1998). Dehkhoda’s Dictionary, Vol. 8. Under the supervision of Dr. Moein, M. and Dr. Shahidi, S.J. 2nd ed. Tehran: Institute of Publications and Printing of Tehran University.
Ghobadi, H. A. (2009). Mirror. Tehran: Research Center for teacher training University.
Hosseini, S. R. (2004). Review of Concept and Spirituality in Role Iranian Painting, Drawings, Master Thesis, Thesis Art, Supervisor Mohammad Maddipour, Shahed University.
Jalalian, M. (2010). Examining the foundations of Aesthetics point of view of Rumi. Manzar, 2(8): 10-13.
Jar, Kh. (1994). Arabic culture to Persian Larus, Vol. 1. Translated by: Zabibian, S. H. 5th ed. Tehran: Amir Kabir Publishing press.
Khoshdel, M. R. (2003). Adam from Paradise to Paradise. Tehran: Harir
Pournamdaran, T. (1988). Ramsay and Farsi Stories in Persian Literature. Tehran: Academic Culture.
Rosegae, M. (2006). Miraj Name, The Prophet’s Ascension Expedition. Translated by Shayestefar, M. Tehran: Institute for Islamic Studies (MAHAS)
Sadr al-Din Shirazi, M. I. I. (1958). The principle treatise. Tehran: Rozane
Sadr al-Din Shirazi, M. I. I. (1959). Al-Hekma Al-Mutaleit Faye O’Safar al-Oroya. Translated by Khajawi, M. Tehran: Molly.
Sadr al-Din Shirazi, M. I. I. (1990). Al-Hekma Al-Mutaleit Faye O’Safar Alborah “translation of Asfar, Vol. 1. Beirut: Dar Al-Hayat al-Thraith Al-Arabi
Sajjadi, S. J. (1991). Culture of mystical terms and expressions. Tehran: Tahori.
Shafie Kadkani, M. R. (1999). The Illusion of Fiction in Persian Poetry. Tehran: Agah.
Shin Dashtgel, H. (2010). Anthropology of manuscripts and folk painting by looking at the iconography of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from the ages of 8-14 AH. Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
Tabatabai, M. H. (1984). Al-Mizan Fei Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 19. Translated by: Mousavi Hamedani, S. M. B. Qom: The Office of Publications Affiliated to the Teachers Society of Qom.
Tabatabai, M. H. (1984). Al-Mizan Fei Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 20. Translated by Mousavi Hamedani, S. M. B. Qom: Islamic Printing Office Depending on the Society of Teachers in the field of science of Qom.
Taherkhani, A. & others. (1997-98). Literary vocabulary, culture Gnostic. Tehran: Beyond Knowledge.
Tajedini, A. (2003). Culture symbol and signs in the thought of Rumi. Tehran: Soroush.
The Holy Quran. (2001). Translated by: Allah Ghomshee, M. Tehran: Rozane.
Memarzadeh, M. (2007).  Imagery and visualization of mysticism in Islamic arts. Tehran: Al-Zahra University.
Nasafi, A. (1962). Human beings, by effort and corrected French introduction by Marijan mule. Tehran: Institute of Iran and France.
Zakavati Gharaguzloo, A. R. (2000). Prophecy (Proceedings Mystical). Tehran: Haghighat.