An Investigation of the Architectural Development of Classroom Design in Iranian Primary Schools Based on Modern Teaching Methods (2001-2021)

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Problem statement: Children are required to continuously experience and learn, and the space of classrooms should be able to govern the sensory and mental powers of students and improve their learning ability. The research question addresses the shape and design of the elementary classroom and its effect on the quality of teaching methods to determine the most appropriate one.
Research objective: The study aims to investigate the current classroom environment of elementary schools and its influence on the quality of modern educational methods in Iran.
Research method: This is descriptive-analytical research using the content analysis method to analyze the data from library resources, and interviews from the field. The sample included four primary schools in Tehran during the years 2001–2021. The theoretical foundation of the study also points to the influence of spatial design and the shape of the classroom on teaching methods.
Conclusion: According to the results, the elementary classrooms in Iran during the years 2001-2021 have had square and rectangular shapes with vertical and linear directions; the teaching methods in these classes are mostly based on individual, lecture, and discussion methods, which among them, group discussion is considered as the most appropriate one. But unfortunately, due to the linear and axial position of tables, benches, and other equipment in elementary classrooms, this method is not often used by teachers, and the two other individual and lecture methods are more applicable. Moreover, classroom furniture, as one of the architectural components of the classroom, had a significant influence on education. Therefore, it can be concluded that the geometrical shape and the space layout of elementary school classes have a significant role in improving the quality of teaching methods to choose the best one.


Abbasi, F., Hejazi, E. & Hakimzade, R. (2020). Lived Experience of Elementary School Teachers about The Opportunities and Challenges of Teaching in the Educational Network of Students (SHAD): A Phenomenological Study. Research in Teaching8(3), 24-1.
Abbaszadeh Diz, F., Hojatollah Rashid K. & Rezaei Sharif, A. (2019). Analysis of Student Satisfaction from Physical Components of School with an Emphasis on Cooperative Learning Case Study: Boys’ Secondary Schools in Tabriz. Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, 11 (23), 51-72.
Aghdasi S., Kiamanesh A. R.,  Mahdavi Hezaaveh M. &  Safarkhaani, M. (2013). Teacher-Student Interaction in Primary Schools Succeeding and Failing in PIRLS 2006 and TIMSS 2007. QJOE, 30(3), 93-120.
Ahmadi Shalmani, M. H. (2010). Contemporary Architecture of Educational Spaces of Ancient Iran to Contemporary World. Tehran: Soroush-e Danesh Publication.
Akbarzadeh, Z., Heidarnattaj, V., Ahmadi, F. & Baezzat, F. (2020). The Effect of layout on Educational Spaces Design to Improve academic and cognitive performance. Journal of Architectural Thought, 3 (6), 96-109.
Azemati, H., Aminifar, Z. & Pourbagher, S. (2016). Spatial Layout Pattern of New Schools based on the Principles of Islamic Schools, to Improving Students Learning. Naqshejahan, 6 (2), 16-23.
Alhindi, S.(2021). Current Teaching Methods Used for English Language Teaching in Upper Elementary School and the Preferred Ones for the Lower Grades. Education and Linguistics Research, 7 (1), 35-52.
Armirul, N. J., Che Nidzam Che, A., Yahya, A., Mohd F. N., Lee, A., Adnan, M. & Noraini, M. (2013). The Physical Class room Learning Enviroment. International Higher Education Teaching and Learning conference, Malaysia.
Barrett, P. & Treves, A. (2019). The Impact of School Infrastructure on Learning. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
 Bassey, D., Grant, P., Humsman, S. & Johnson, T. (2012). Get active: Remaining Learning spaces for student success Eugene. United states of America: ISTE, International society for technology in Education.
Berry, M. (2012). Healty school environment and enhansedeucational performance. Washington DC: The carpetand Rug Institute(CRI).
 Darbeiki, B. (2003). Thoughts Education Organization (sazmane Parvareshe Afkar). Tehran: Islamic Revolution Documents Centre.
 De Marco Werner, C. (2017). Transformable and transportable architecture: analysis of buildings components and strategies for project design. Master Thesis, Barcelona: Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
Durmus, S. (2012). Change and Transformation in Architecture. On the Concept of Zeitgeist. Karadeniz: Technical University.
Ghorbani, A. (2014). Phenomenological analysis of teaching methods and their impact on the designation of architectural space of classrooms. Educational Innovations, 14 (3), 113-138.
Khodabakhshi, S., Foroutan, M. & Samiei, A. (2016). The Evolution of Space in Schools Architecture Based on the Role of Their Governing Educational system (Case Study: Sepahsalar School, Darolfunoon, and Alborz High school). Bagh-e Nazar12(37), 61-74.
Khurshidi, A. (2002). Ravesh-ha va Fonoun-e Tadris [Teaching methods and techniques]. Tehran: Yastoroun.
Lotf Atta, A. (2008). Ta’sir-e Avamel-e Mohiti bar Yad-Giri va Raftar dar Mohit-ha-ye Amouzesh-i (Ebteda-yi) dar Shahr [The effect of environmental factors on learning and behavior in educational spaces]. Quarterly Journal of Urban Planning, (21), 73-90.
Hosseini Ruholahi, A .(2005). The effects of cooperative learning on psychologiacal and social traits among undergradute students. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 36 (6),89-102.
Mirza Mohammadi, M. H. (2011). Teaching Methods and Techniques. Tehran: Pooran Pajoohesh Press.
Mozaffar, F. & Mirmoradi, S. S. (2015). Investigation of Iranian Schools Spatial Configuration with Respect to the Connection between the Classroom and Outdoor Spaces. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development7(13), 93-105.
Najafi, H. (2019). Comparing of the effect of Blended and Traditional teaching on Learning. Research in Medical Education (RME); 11 (2), 54-63.
Nazarpoor, M. T., Heydari, A. & Sarmadi, S. M. (2021). A Comparative Study of Architectural Configuration of Public and Educational Spaces in Iranian-Islamic Schools and Contemporary Patterns of Arrangement. QJOE, 37 (2), 147-176.
Nazarpoor, M. T. & Noroozian Maleki, S. (2018). Identifying the effective architectural components in improving students’ learning by emphasizing on the open spaces of schools based on the document of fundamental transformation of education. Quarterly Journal of Education and Learning Studies, 10 (2), 165-193.
Tabesh, M. (2015). Desired School: investigating the factors affecting students’ and teachers’ sense of attachment to the school and learning spaces with regard to its architecture and furniture. Roshd-e Moalem, (299), 10-12.
Turkman, M., Jalalian, S. & Dezhdar, O. (2019). Madrese-ye Delkhah, Barresi-ye Avamel-e Mo’aser bar Hes-e Delbastegi-ye Danesh-Amouzan va Mo’aleman Nesbat be Madrese va Faza-ha-ye Yadgiri ba Tavjoh be Memari va Mobleman-e An [Elaborating the Role of the Educational Spaces’ Environmental Factors in Facilitating the Learning by the Primary School Students]. Shabak, 2(11), 1-14.
Hosseini Ruholahi, A .(2005). The effects of cooperative learning on psychologiacal and social traits among undergradute students. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 36 (6),89-102.
Lazović, Z. (1988). Prototip i njegov značaj u arhitektonskom projektovanju. IMS`88-tehnologija projektovanja i građenja, Beograd: IMS SR Srbije, str. 129-158.
Mohammadi, K. & Ghaini, Z. (2002). History of Iran Children Literature. V. 4. Tehran: Children Research Institution.
 Singh, V., Skiles, S. M., Krager, J. E., Wood, K. L. & Jensen, D. & Sierakowski, R. (2009). Innovations in Design Through Transformation: A Fundamental Study of Transformation Principles. Journal of Mechanical Design, 131 (008), 81010-1-18. NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Tunner, C. & Kenneth, K. (2000). The Influence of School Architecture on Academic Archivement. Journal of Educational Administrations, 38(4), 309-330.
 Widiastuti, K., Joko Susilo, M. & Nurfinaputri, H. (2020). How classroom design impacts for student learning comfort: Architect perspective on designing classrooms. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(3), 469-477.