Influential Movements on Sustainability Concept at Neighborhood Scale (An Analysis on Theories)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Problem statement: The concept of sustainability is being increasingly discussed as an important component contributing to building environments. This has grown in importance especially, in neighborhoods as the basic building block of cities and organizer of architectural components. Nevertheless, accurate understanding and knowledge of sustainability are necessary for its implementation and actualization in the real world.
Research objective: This study attempts to provide a better understanding of the contemporary conception of sustainability and lay the groundwork for its progress and evolution
Research method: in this study, the sustainability principles of the movements contributing to the formation of neighborhoods in the last 150 years were analytically investigated using the grounded theory method, and conclusively, common approaches were identified and those aspects, which contribute to the contemporary concept of sustainability were investigated. These movements were namely parks and playground, garden city, neighborhood unit, regional ecological planning, modernism, neo-traditionalism, landscape ecological urbanism, and eco-city; however, the contributory styles were not limited to these, and the authors of this study selected some of them according to their importance, impact range, and limitations of this study.
Conclusion: By investigating the guidelines and principles of influential architecture and urban planning movements on neighborhoods, a tail of interconnected views and thoughts, resulting from different professional fields, can be observed. Each of them is presented as a response to the urban life challenges of their time, and based on their effectiveness, they have consolidated into the concept of sustainability. The contemporary concept of sustainability could be recognized as a flexible and developed phenomenon resulting from the contribution of past movements and the outcome of their successful experiences. In the present study, sustainable management is also introduced as the prevailing movement of the last decade which contributes to the development and formation of neighborhoods while conforming to the movements with greater emphasis on the planning approach.


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