A Look at the Defamiliarization Devices in the Works of Muhammad Siyah Qalam

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor, Faculty Member, School of visual Atr, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran. Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate, School of Visual Arts, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Problem statement: Defamiliarization, as a concept, defines art as the depiction of things in a new, unexpected light. As a brief review reveals, the works of Muhammad Siyah Qalam are distinguished from the mainstream Persian miniature - which followed specific criteria, due to characteristics that create a certain kind of defamiliarization. Therefore, the essential question for this research is, “what are the unconventional devices used by Siyah Qalam to achieve defamiliarization?”
Research objective: This research explores the defamiliarization devices used by Siyah Qalam. Theoretical analysis of art from a defamiliarization standpoint is important because it reveals the artist’s mechanisms and devices to accomplish the aesthetical goal of prolonging perception.
Research method: This study is conducted as secondary, descriptive-analytical research and provides visual examples to aid understanding.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that Siyah Qalam transcended Persian miniature conventions using unique subject matters, new combinations, personification, exaggeration, repetition, and unconventional painting techniques. His particular use of these devices enables defamiliarization to be explored in his works on both the non-structural and structural levels.

Conclusion The works of Muhammad Siyah Qalam show features that are different from the frameworks and traditions that govern Iranian painting. The research findings indicate that Muhammad Siyah Qalam in emergencies such as subject selection, the creation of new compositions and recognition led to the emergence of Defamiliarization at the non-structural level of the works. Also, the use of measures such as the exaggeration of repetition and how to use the technique by Muhammad Siyah Qalam has caused Defamiliarizatio at the structural level.


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