Application of Persian garden Design Pattern in Gardens of Northern Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.A. in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Lahijan Islamic Azad University, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Lahijan Islamic Azad University, Iran.


Problem statement: Persian gardens which are registered on UNESCO heritage list share similar patterns and design characteristics. Enjoying a geometrical design, enclosure, order, visual symmetry, axial order and centrality are among the main characteristics of every Persian garden. The Persian gardens are always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation. The Persian garden, as a metaphor of paradise, is usually known as the tradition of arid zones and hot and dry climates; while due to the greenery and rich natural environment of mild and humid climate, this kind of design is not considered a necessity in such areas.
Research objective: This paper, however, rejects such inclusivity and discusses that the Persian garden design principles have also been employed in other climatic regions of Iran as well. Accordingly, the current paper introduces a number of historical gardens in mild and humid climatic zone of Iran, which have applied the same design principles as Persian gardens.
Research method: The paper seeks to clarify if Persian gardens can be exclusively found in hot and arid parts of Iran; and if not, what are the ways in which one can design a Persian garden in the mild and humid parts of Iran. The paper uses a qualitative method to explore the understanding and interpretation of users about the notion of garden in the studied area, and to identify the mutual characteristics of designing garden in central and northern parts of Iran.
Conclusion: The paper further discusses if application of Persian garden design principles is responsive in northern Iran. “Dar Al-Hokoumah of Guilan”, “Safa Garden” and “Nasseriye Gardens” in Rasht, “Abbasabad Garden” in Behshar as well as several historical houses in Amlash are among the cases to approve the adaptability of Persian garden design principles in a different climate than hot arid central part of Iran.


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