Analysis of the Contemporary Architectural Works based on the Mythical Criticism Approach Adaptation of Yokohama Port Terminal Architectural Pattern to Persian Garden Archetype

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran


Problem statement: Designing and its methods are always the concerns of people who work in academic and professional fields in different areas. Architecture as one of the central disciplines in this field has always been challenging the genesis of its works during different periods and the thinkers’ opinion from a different point of views; the results of studies showed controversial views about the methodology of designing. Meanwhile, some researchers in psychology and anthropology believe in the influence of some indirect factors in the emergence of artistic works that have led to the appearance of new horizons in the analysis of artworks and its referral to some unconscious agents.
Research objective: This study investigates some of the unknown factors and dimensions involved in the formation of architectural work that the designer does not sense it directly, which unconsciously influences the formation of his/her design.
Research method: In this research, we used the “mythical criticism” method which by an adaptive analytical approach and an induction method, analyses the elements and concepts that have contributed unconsciously to the creation of the work and interprets its mythical motifs. For this purpose, first, the emergence of archetypes in architecture was described, then an architectural archetype was selected and the work of a contemporary designer was compared with the selected archetype.
Conclusion: Using the mythical criticism method, it was found that the spatial system of the Yokohama port terminal, which an Iranian architect has been involved in its designing, was consistent with the spatial system of the Iranian garden archetype.


Abrams, M.H. (2005). Classory of Literary Terms. Boston: ThomsonWodsworth.
Alami, M. (2011). Symbolism in Persian Garden; The Sense of Nature in the Royal Safavid Gardens. Manzar, 3 (17), 6-13.
Alexander, Ch. (1971).The State of the Art in Design Methods. DMG Newsletter. 5(3), 3-7.
Alexander, Ch. (1973). Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Alexander, Christopher. (1971).The State of the Art in Design Methods. DMG Newsletter, 5(3), 3-7.
Ansari, H. (2007). Nesbat’e Nazar va Amanl dar Trrahi-ye Memari [The Ratio of Theory and Practice in Architectural Design], (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis). Faculty of Architecture,University of Tehran, Iran.
Barati, N. (2004). Garden and Construction of Gardens in the Iranian Culture and Persian Language. Bagh-e-Nazar, 1 (2), 3-15.
Barati, N. & Kakavand, E. (2015). Phenomenological investigation in the event of archetype recognition in Islamic-Iranian architecture . Bagh-e-Nazar, 13 (42), 5-18.
Barati, N., Alehashemi, A. & Minatour Sajjadi, A. (2016). Iranian Worldview and Axial Pattern in Persian Garden. Manzar, (41), 78-85.
Beheshti, M. (2008). Mabani: Jahan-e Bagh-e Irani [Basics:World of Persian Garden]. Golestan-e-Honar, 4 (12),7-15.
Bloom, H. (1988). Twentieth-century American Literature. Vol. 6. Chelsea House Publishers.
Cross, N. (1993). A History of Design Methodology. Design Methodology and Relationships with Science. NATO ASI Series (Series D: Behavioural and Social Sciences). Springer, Dordrecht, 71, 15-22.
Daneshdoost, Y. (1990). Bagh-e Irani [Persian Garden]. Asar, (18 & 19), 214-224.
Dehghani, N., Memarian, Gh., MohammadMoradi, A. & Abdi Ardakani, H. (2011). Dfinition of Archetypal Semantic Commonalities Considering The Concept of Ascension Architectural Framework. Motaleat-e Tatbighi-e Honar, 1 (2), 3-12.
Etezadi, L. (2013). A Window to the Persian Garden. Manzar, 5 (24), 6-9.
Ghaemi, F. (2011). Mythological Criticism : Its Theoritical Backgrounds, Principles and Application. QUARTERLY LITERARY CRITICISM, 3 (11,12), 33-56
Golabchi, M. & Zeinali Farid, A. (2012). Archetypal Architecture. Tehran: Entesharat-e Daneshgah-e Tehran.
Gurin, W. L. , Lieber, E. J. , Willingham, J. R. & Morgan, L. (1998). A handbook of critical approaches to literature (Z.Mihankhah Trans.). Tehran: Ettelaatt.
Hamzeh-nejad, M. & Radmehr, M. (2017). Analysis of Space Design Principles and Optimized Selection of Models in Contemporary Iranian Model-Based Architecture, Case Study: National Heritage Organization Building Bldg. Journal of Iranian Architecture Studies, 1 (11), 145-168
Hashemi, M. M. (2018). Amizesh-e-Ofogh-Ha: Montakhabati Az Asar-e Dariyoosh Shayegan [Intertwining the Horizons: Selections from Dariush Shayegan’s Works]. Tehran: Foroozan-e-Rooz Publications.
Heydarnattaj, V. & Mansouri, S. A. (2009). A Critical Study on the Chaharbagh Theory in Creation of the Persian Gardens. Bagh-e-Nazar, 6 (12), 17-30.
Heidarnattaj V. (2015). Criticism of Attitudes Source the Quartet Pattern in Persian Garden. Journal of art and civilization of the Orient (JACO), 3 (7), 6-27.
Hillenbrand, R. (2008). Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaninig (B. Ayatollahzade Shirazi trans.). Tehran: Entesharat-e-Rozane.
Jones, J. Ch. (1970). Design Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Jones, J. Ch. (1977). How My Thoughts About Design Methods Have Changed During the Years. Design Methods and Theories, 11(1) 48-62.
Joodaki Azizi, A., Moussavi Haji, S.R. & Mehr Afarin, R. (2015). Chaharsofeh Pattern Typology at Iranian Architecture and Its Evolution. Iran University of Science & Technology, 2 (4), 64-86.
Jung, C. G. (1984). The Spirit of Man in Art and Literature. London: Routledge.
Jung, C. G. (2001 b). Dreams. (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Jung, C. G., Franz M.L., Henderson, J.L. Jaffe, A. & Jacobi, J. (1964). Man and his Symbols. Garden City, New York: Doubleday.
Jung, C.G., (2001a). Modern Man in Search of a soul (W. S. Dell & C. F. Baynes, Trans.). London: Routledge. (Original work published 1933)
Kazzazi, M. J. (1997). The Dream, the Epic, the Myth. Tehran:Nashr-e- Markaz.
Levi-Strauss, C. (1963). Structural Anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
Lynn, G. & Zaera-Polo, A. (2018). Yokohama International Port Terminal. Retrieved from:, Access data: December, 20. 2019.
Mahvash, M. (2006). Architectural Expression: Corporeal Manifestation of The Essence of Architecture. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, 28(45), 45-54.
Mansouri, S. A. (2005). An introduction to the Aesthetics of Iranian Garden. Bagh-e-Nazar, 2 (3), 3-6.
Mansouri, S. A. & Heydarnattaj, V. (2011). Chahār Bāgh? A Study of the Origin of the Chahār Bāgh Concept as a Model for Iranian Gardens. Manzar, 3 (14), 16-23.
Mansouri, S. A. (2015). Phenomenology of the Surrounding Wall in Persian Garden. Manzar, 7 (33), 6-8.
Masoudi, A. (2010). The Roots of the Persian garden. Manzar, 2 (12), 10-15.
Moreno, A. (1997). Jung, Gods, and Modern Man (D. Mehrjooyee, Trans.). Tehran: Nashr-e-Markaz.
Motadayyen, H. & Motadayyen, R. (2009). Pavilion in Persian Gardens; A Review on Nine-part Pavilions. Manzar, (33), 32-39.
Neyestani, J., Hatamian, M. J. , MoussaviKoohpar, S.M. & Hatam, G.A. (2012). Analysis of Continuity of Chahar - Taqi Architecture from Sassanid to Islamic Period in Iran with Emphasis on the Archetypal Method of Critic. Journal of Historical Sociology, 4(2), 173-191.
Payandeh, H. (2017). Critical Theory : An Interdisciplinary Coursebook (Vol.2). Tehran: Samt.
Pirnia, M. K. (1994). Persian Gardens. Abadi, 4 (15), 4-7.
Pirnia, M. K. (2008). Persian Garden. Golestan-e-Honar, 4 (12), 20-22.
Pope, A. U. & Ackerman, Ph. (1967). A survey of Persian Art, from Prehistoric Times to Present. London & New York: Oxford University Press.
Shahbazi Chegeni, B., Daadkhah, K., Moini, M. (2015). The Study of Identity-Making Patterns in The Identity of Iran’s Contemporary Architecture. Motaleat-e Tatbighi-e Honar, 9 (21), 3-14.
Shahcheraghi, A. (2013). Uni-axial Pattern of Persian Garden (Chaharbagh) Re-finding. Hoviatshahr, 8 (20), 17-30.
Shamisa, S. (1995). Anva-e Adabi [Literary Genres]. Tehran: Ferdows.
Shayegan, D. (2012). Binesh-e Asatiri [Mythological Insight]. Tehran: Nashr-e Asatir.
Sheybani, M. & Hashemi Zadegan, A. (2015). Persian Garden, Ever-Renewed Being. Bagh-e-Nazar,13 (45), 5-12.
Shirvani, M. R. (2015). The Theory of the Mandala and its Representation in Chahar-Bagh Carpets. Negarineh-Ye-Honar-e-Eslami, 2(5), 5-19.
Soltani, M., Mansouri, S. A. & Farzin, A. A. (2012). A Comparative Study on the Role of Pattern and Experience-Based Concepts in Architectural Space. Bagh-e-Nazar, 9 (21), 3-12.
Stronach, D. (1990). CAHARBAGH. Encyclopedia Iranica. New York: Eisenbrauns Inc.
Yokohama Int. Port Terminal. (1994). Retrieved from:
Yokohama International Port Terminal. (n.d.). Retrieved December, 20, 2019, from: