Evaluation of the Effect of Physical Components on Place Attachment in Communal Spaces of Selected Residential Complexes in Tehran

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Problem statement: With the extension of human societies and the promotion of human social needs, the necessity of being present in communal spaces and identifying the components that affect the sense of attachment to the place for some human activities is of great importance. The lack of attachment, the separation of individuals from one another, and the lack of social interactions, along with other urban problems, are the result of a modernist vision of space.
Research objective: The purpose of the study is to classify the qualitative components of communal spaces in residential complexes with moderate urban density in Tehran. To extract the values of qualitative, physical and perceptual qualities in the residential complex scale, as well as the manner and magnitude of the influence of physical components in creating a sense of place attachment, is the main purpose of this research.
Research method: The method of this research is the combination of quantitative and qualitative method. Using the causal-comparative strategy, the effect of physical characteristics of residential spaces was studied on the attachment of residents. In order to conduct empirical and survey studies, after field surveys, based on the scale, class and form of open and closed space, different types of residential complexes were selected. From regular daily visits through behavioral recording and completing 361 questionnaires along with analysis (Multivariate regression) through the correlation strategy and quantitative analysis of the data using SPSS 19 software, were tested on several components and personality and behavioral characteristics of users.
Conclusion: The results of the research show that physical components such as "privacy", "integrity", "legibility", "visual richness", "composition", "management and supervision", "natural elements" in order of priority have the greatest impact on the sense of place attachment. Therefore, the designer as the creator of space by choosing the scale and layout of the blocs together with the design of the structure of the spaces leads to a change in the sense of attachment of people living in the future.


Altman, I. & Low, S. (1992). Place Attachment. New York: Plenum Press.
Anton, C. E. & Lawrence, C. (2016). The relationship between place attachments, the theory of planned behavior and residents’ response to place change. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (47), 145-154.
Bell, S. (2006). Visual design elements. (M. Ahmadinejad, Trans). Eshahan: Khak.
Besharat, M., Karimi. K. & Rahiminejad, A. (2007). Investigating the relationship between attachment styles and personality dimensions. Journal of psychology, (36), 37-55.
Billig, M. (2006). Is My Home My Castle? Place Attachment, Risk Perception, and Religious Faith. Journal of Environment and Behavior, 38, 248-265. Billig, Miriam 2006. Is My Home My Castle? Place Attachment, Risk Perception, and Religious Faith. Journal of Environment and Behavior, (38), 248-265.
Brown, B., Perkins, D. D. & Brown, G. (2003). Place Attachment in a Revitalizing Neighborhood: Individual and Block Levels of Analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (23), 259-271.
Brown, G., Raymond, C.M., Corcoran, J. (2015). Mapping and measuring place attachment. Applied Geography, (57), 42-53.
Charkhchian, N. (2009). Analysis of the factors influencing increased attachment to the public spaces of the city with an emphasis on activities. Unpublished master’s thesis, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
Cresswell, T. (2015) Place, an introduction. London: Wiley Blackwell.
Daneshpour, A., Sepehri Moghadam, M. & Charkhchian, M. (2009). Explaining attachment to a place and investigating its elements and dimensions, Journal of Honar-ha-ye ziba, (38), 37-48.
Einifar, A. & Ghazizadeh, N. (2010). Typology of the residential complexes in Tehran with open space criterion, Journal of Armanshahr, 5, 35-46.
Florek, M. (2011). No place like home: a perspective on place attachment and impacts on city management. Journal of town and city management, 1(4), 346-354.
Gehl, J. (1987). Life between buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Ghazaizadeh, N. (2011). The effect of open space design on creating a sense of attachment to a place, Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Tehran., Iran.
Gifford, R. (2002). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice. Canada: Optimal Books.
Green, R. (1999). Meaning and form in community perception of town character, Journal of Environmental Psychology (19), 311-329.
Gustafson, P. (2001). Meanings of place: Everyday experience and theoretical conceptualizations. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (21), 5-16.
Hashas, M. H. (2004). Residents' Attachment to New Urbanist versus Conventional Suburban Developments. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State University.
Hataminejad, H., Ahmadpour, A., Ziari, K. & Habibian, B. (2018). Barresi-ye tasir-e moalefe-ha-ye kalbadi bar delbastegi-ye makani dar rastay-e tahaghogh-e mahalle-ye paydar (nemone moredi mahale-ye ahvaz) [The effect of physical components on spatial attachment to achieve a sustainable neighborhood], sustainable architecture and city, 6(2), 67.
Hernández, J.; García, L. & Ayuga, F. (2001). Assessment of the Visual Impact Made on the Landscape by New Buildings: A Methodology for Site Selection. Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, (68), 15-28.
Hidalgo, M. C. & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place Attachment: Conceptual and Empirical Questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (21), 273-281.
Jorgensen, B.S. & Stedman, R.C. (2006). A comparative analysis of predictors of sense of place dimensions: attachment to, dependence on, and identification with lakeshore properties. Journal of Environmental Management (79), 316–327.
Khabiri, S. (2012). TDevelopment of urban design framework based on attachment creation approach in Emamzadeh Yahya neighborhood. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tarbiat Modares University. Faculty of Art and Architecture. Iran.
Lawson, B. (2001). The Language of Space, London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Lewicka, M. (2008). Place Attachment, Place Identity, and Place Memory: Restoring the Forgotten City Past. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (28), 209-231.
Madanipour, A. (2005). Urban space design, an attitude towards the social and spatial process, (F. Mortezaei, Trans).Tehran: Urban Processing and Planning Comoani.
Mahdavinejad, M., Dehghani, F. & Boroumand, B. (2014). Typology of attitude towards collective spaces in contemporary Iranian Architecture, 1979-2011. The first international congress on new perspectives in architecture and urbanism, Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Art and Architecture.
Mohammadi, M. & Ayatollahi, M. (2014). Avamel-e moaser dar ertegha-ye ejtemapaziri-ye bana-ha-ye farhangi barresi-ye moredi farhangsara-ye farshchian-e Isfahan [Factors affecting the promotion of sociability of cultural monuments, case study: Farshchian Cultural Center, Esfahan]. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, (15), 15-26.
Moulay, A.; Norsidah, U.; Suhardi, M. & Sumarni, I. (2018). Understanding the process of parks’ attachment: Interrelation between place attachment, behavioral tendencies, and the use of public place. City, Culture and Society, (14), 28–36.
Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980). Genius loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli.
Norberg-Schulz, C. (2002). Architecture: presence, language, and place. (A. Seyedahmadian, Trans). Tehran: Memar Publications.
Norton, B. G. & Hannon, B. (2002). Democracy and Sense of Place Values in Environmental Policy. In: LIGHT, ANDREW (ed.) Environmental Ethics: An Anthology London; New York, Routledge.
Ode, Å., Fry, G., Tveit, M., Sundli, M. & Pernette, & D. (2009). Indicators of Perceived Naturalness as Drivers of Landscape Preference. Journal of Environmental Management, (90),375-383.
Pakzad, J. (2009). Thoughts on urbanism, from space to place, Tehran: Shahidi Publications.
Pourjafar, M., Izadi, M. & Khabiri, S. (2015). Spatial attachment, concept recognition, principles and criteria, Journal of Hoviyat-e shahr, (9), 24, 43-64.
Proshansky, H., Fabian, A.K. & Kaminoff, R., (1983). Place identity: Physical world socialization of the self. Journal of Environmental Psychology (3), 57–83..
Rahmdel, M. (2005). Hagh-e ensan bar harim-e khososi [The right of humans for privacy]. Faculty of Law and Political Science, (70), 119-146.
Rahimi, R., Mohammadi, A., Hasanzadeh Davoodi, Sh. (2015). Holographic model for the evolution of the city (A case study: Amol), Journal of Bagh-e Nazar, 11(31), 89-98.
Ram, Y., Björk, P. & Weidenfeld, A. (2016). Authenticity and place attachment of major visitor attractions. Tourism Management, (52), 110-122.
Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness, Pion Limited, (29–38), 47–56.
Sadeghi, A. (2014). explaining the sense of attachment and its relationship with environmental aesthetics in public spaces of Iranian-Islamic, Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran.
Scannell, L. & Gifford, R. (2009). Defining Place Attachment: A Tripartite Organizing Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (30), 1-10.
Shamai, S., (1991). Sense of place: an empirical measurement. Geoforum 22 (3), 347–358.
Smith, K. M. (2011). The Relationship between Residential Satisfaction, Sense of Community, Sense of Belonging and Sense of Place in a Western Australian Urban Planned Community, Unpublished Ph.D thesis. Perth, Western Australia: Edith Cowan University.
Steele, F. (1981). The sense of place. Inc: CBI Publishing Company.
Tuan, Y. F. (1974). Sense of place: Humanistic perspective. In C. Board, (Ed.), Progress in Geography: -International Reviews of Current Research, Vol. 6. London: Edward Arnold Publishers, 211-253.
Williams, D. R. & Roggenbuck, J.W. (1989). Measuring Place Attachment: Some Preliminary Results. Session on Outdoor Planning and Management, San Antonio: NRPA Symposium on Leisure Research.