The Role of Farmsteads and Gardens in the Formation and Development of The Historic Town of Naraq

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture and Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

2 M.A. of Architectural Conservation, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Iran.


Problem statement: The historic town of Naraq has gradually lost its trade-dependent economy over the last century; yet, its agricultural and livestock sectors around the town have remained. Therefore, the town has extensive connections with its suburbs. The water shortage, urban development, and land use change have endangered mazraʿas (farmsteads) and gardens. On the other hand, initial surveys indicate a broad connection between farmlands and the urban structure of Naraq.
Research objective: This article aims to understand the role of farmsteads and gardens in the urban structure of Naraq. So, it will study the location of the farmsteads, gardens and agricultural lands in comparison with the early urban core of Naraq and its historical development process.
Research method: The method applied in this article is historical interpretation and in addition to historical texts, urban texture and context will also be interpreted to achieve this purpose. Regarding this matter, the cultivated areas adjacent to the city and areas far away from its urban texture have been identified and studied as examples of inhabited farmsteads and gardens to illustrate the relationship between them and the early urban core and also its secondary development.
Conclusion: The analysis of article`s finding indicates that farmsteads in their micro-settlement pattern have provided utilizing water resources, planning to use lands for having a safe settlement and development, and expanding agricultural lands to reduce environmental hazards such as floods. On a larger scale, this pattern has continued to develop and has transformed the primary agricultural rural core into a secondary urban areas, and at the same time, it coincided with the urban development to the east, in accordance to the texture and shape of the farmsteads and gardens at eastern part of the original habitat or settlement.


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