عنوان مقاله [English]
Throughout history, “creation of garden” has been one of the most spectacular human activities. Art of gardening is considered as one of the ancient Iranian arts that has valuable traditions and spiritual power. Many factors have influenced on the formation of Iranian gardens and for these factors, it is important to recognize the sites where these gardens have been formed. Stepping into an Iranian garden compels us to think about this idea that what mysteries have been concealed behind its adorned appearance that over the centuries it has not gotten old and also invites modern human being for a visit with its tempting perspective. So far various appearances of gardens in Iran have been completely depended on the surrounding environment and the amount of water. Since the information about the gardens of Samarkand limited to reports of Clavijo and a number of articles, and most gardens of Samarkand and Isfahan are not exist now, the physical structure of gardens of Samarkand and Isfahan and the effects of Timurid gardens on Chahar Bagh Street Gardens are the main issue of this paper so that the contents presented in this study is a step for further studies in this field.
Samarkand and Isfahan had also common features in terms of the natural potentials and the ruling government in those eras. These common features have influenced on gardening (landscape gardening) in these two cities. In resources, it has been mentioned that Samarkand and Isfahan were garden cities.
Accordingly, by a descriptive – historical approach, intends to identify the elements that have formed Timurid gardens and Safavid gardens and the similarities and differences between these gardens in two different eras, In fact descriptions are given in the gardens of these eras are much more detailed compare to previous periods. This is helpful for recognizing the gardens in these two historic periods and the question will be responded that how much Timurid gardens and especially the gardens which had built in Samarkand by Timur, affected on the subsequent gardens. We consider gardens in these two eras i.e., Timurid and Safavid eras, by the aid of historical descriptions, itineraries and documents and comparison them with each other as well as studies which done by contemporary researchers. Since the Shah Abbas, was spent his childhood in Harat and it was one of the capital cities of the Timurid and contains a lot of gardens, therefore, garden city of Harat which was influenced by the garden city of Samarkand, has in mind of Shah Abbas as an example. it is concluded that Safavid style landscape gardening, especially the Chaharbagh avenue, roots in Timurid era.