عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Tehran, the capital of Iran, before the destruction of its green structures from first Pahlavi era (1925-1941 A.D.), intensified within last twenty years, has had a close-tangled texture of urban constructions between gardens. Iranian Garden of fruitful and fruitless, has modeled an essential component of the urban texture, combined with other components such as school, Reliance, tomb, mosque, Saqakhaneh and…, or in the form of collective green spots, has stabilized traditions "city walk" and "Pilgrimage - Recreation" in the city. Urban complexs formed in the gardens neighborhood that are frequently micro-scale, have higher "Behavioral Density" than modern large parks formed in the appearance of modernism in Tehran. Other excellence of these urban gardens is their more coordination with Tehran morphological basic layer that is affected by five essential river-valleys elongated north to south. This coordination leads to forming the hierarchy of structural and behavioral patterns that are defined on the basis of the different height of river-valleys points (ridges, foothills and the bottom lines) integrated with cultural paradigms of an Islamic-Persian society. As goes before, patterns of formation the urban gardens in Tehran has been under influence of three important factors: Five essential river-valleys in the urban morphological layer
Water fountain-heads as origins of civilization
Urban social context, defining an integration between gardens and public spaces
Tehran mid-urban gardens have been cared in the most of political, governmental and instructive literature, but it has done in a descriptive approach avoiding them from ranking in the formal garden typology. Urban gardens might not prominently considered for optical basics or ideological aspects, but these gardens have had distinguish behavioral origins in the field of neighborhood units communications. In this paper, gathering data is done through the study of important case studies in a specified historic period. Besides using the historical research method, field researches have been done to identify the correctness of historic patterns that have remained at present. The results of this verification have come in comprehensive diagrams.
This paper is an attempt to explain the role of gardens in the formation of urban public spaces and also classification of the structural patterns based on the garden in Tehran. Main research questions considered in this field can be the following questions:
What factors have been essential for Tehran garden’s sustainability in traditional urban texture?
Cutting of what inter-texture communications, leads to isolation and quality decrease of these gardens today? What kinds of unique micro-cultures in Tehran have declined through emitting micro-scale gardens and replacing with un-native cultures?
We concentrated Tehran gardens, but furthermore, there were agricultural landscapes and endowed farms in southeast fields of city, such as "Rei" and "Doulab", in the vicinity of tombs, known as creation spaces of the poor people in weekends. Many of Tehran gardens are the case studies that confirm different garden typology cases, but in this paper the strongest type has discussed as case studies, also in an analogical manner, Behavioral Density is defined as Behavioral Content/Event Space and for more sensibility, Event Spaces is defined as a fracture of Tehran university space (V).
Hybrid patterns with gardens, especially before first Pahlavi era have been observed in multiple roles as follows: - Origin of civilization, case study: "Emamzadeh-saleh" garden
- Landscape Garden, case study: Emamzadeh-Ghasem garden
- Transforming a symbolic landscape element to a garden, case study: "Haft Chenar" in "Beryanak"
- Myth-memorial-garden (especially in poor south urban wards): case study: "Javanmard Ghasab" Tomb-Garden - "Endowed Garden" as a religious-social tradition: case study: "Marvi" garden
- Place of pilgrimage-recreation, case study: "Bagh-Peste-Beyk" complex The most important distinction of above-mentioned patterns than the modern strategies discussed after 1970, such as "Agropolitan" approach or strategy for reciprocal rural – urban linkage, is in formation process in a long time period and gradually coordination with unique basic layers of city.
A Modernism current has decreased the Behavioral Density of urban public spaces. Extra large-scale has threatened past stabilized "Behavioral Stations", and this scale hasn’t had the ability of creation new public spaces, for its characteristics such as crudeness, dullness, rigidity and inflexibility. In Tehran, in the middle of "Ghajar" era (1795-1925 A.D.), governmental large gardens such as "Eshrat-abab", "Doshan tappe" and etc were founded with structures in European style. In "Mozaffari" era "zoo" appeared as an incoming element in gardens. Finally foundation of urban great parks represented the aristocratic concepts of environment and planting. As a result, democratic traditions integrated with "life style" in neighborhood units weakened. Anyway, value of urban gardens had preserved for public until first Pahlavi era. Modernism outcomes in Tehran initiated from performing of the "Khiabankshi" map, and this approach was so harmful for those public spaces known as Behavioral Stations of pedestrian flows. In next decades, the current of forgetting has led to declination of garden’s spiritual value for pop and finally replacing with built masses.