عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem statement: The three factors of culture, tradition, and religious beliefs have been amongst the most effective factors in ancient civilizations including Iran and China. In the mentioned civilizations, these factors have been embodied in various forms and had special importance in defining the spatial identity of various spaces including the gardens. In this regard, this comparative study is aimed to investigate how the ritual and cultural concepts affect the formation of the symbols and physical spaces of the gardens of these two civilizations is the main objective of this research.
Objectives: The main objective of this paper is the identification of the symbols used in the physical structure of Persian gardens (Islamic era) and Chinese gardens (Tao and Buddha) and their relationships with the ritual and cultural beliefs of these two civilizations.
Research Methodology: This is a qualitative research and also interpretative-historical method in data collection and logical reasoning method in data analysis. This study has been conducted with a layered approach and focus on the effect of the symbols derived from religious beliefs. In this way, at first, the symbols, their types and appearance and exhibition manners in Persian gardening and then in Chinese gardening have been investigated and then due to the relationship between the utilized symbols and religious beliefs of the civilization and their creators, a comparative study of symbols has been carried out in Persian and Chinese gardens.
Conclusion: The results of this research show that the Persian and Chinese gardens from the beginning of their formation have faced various methods according to the existing differences in the attitude to nature, ritual and cultural roots and climate factors and their effect on the appearance of general and specific symbols. It seems that the Chinese gardening has used the symbols s as a reminder of the powers and hidden forces in the nature and universe with the approach of nature sanctification; while, in the Persian gardening, symbols are used with specific (holy) wisdom vision to remind paradise and God’s power in the creation of nature and the world.