مطالعه ترامتنی- بیناگفتمانی صحنه کشته شدن نر گاو آسمانی درتصویر سازی روایت گیلگمش

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو

2 هیئت علمی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 مدیرگروه پژوهش هنر دانشگاه الزهرا

چکیده

حماسه گیلگمش از کهن ترین حماسه های منظوم بشری و از میراث غنی بین النهرین است که حدود دوازده قرن پیش از میلاد مسیح سروده شده ولی تاریخ ثبت آن ر ا بر الواح گلی مکشوف از کتابخانه آشور بانیپال در حدود قرن 6 رقم زده اند .
این منظومه مشتمل بر سه هزار و ششصد مصرع است که به لحاظ ساخت دقیق و زبان شاعرانه و از نظر سبک از شاهکارهای ادبیات حماسی جهان بشمار می آید .
این روایت در دوازده لوحه گلی ثبت شده است و حوادثی را که گیلگمش، پادشاه اوروک در راه حل معمای مرگ از سر می گذراند و سرانجام متوجه تلاش بیهوده اش شده و تسلیم سرنوشت می شود را شرح می دهد.
این الواح گلی در طول تاریخ و در فرهنگ های گوناگون توسط مولفان بسیاری برگردانده شده است وموضوع پژوهش های بسیاری بوده و نظر مولفان و هنرمندان بسیاری را به خود جلب کرده است.
از این میان تألیف احمد شاملو با تصویر سازی مرتضی ممیز و تألیف هانیبال الخاص با تصویر سازی منوچهر صفرزاده در این نوشتار قابل تأمل است.
به عبارتی در این جستار تلاش می شود با انتخاب دو تصویر با موضوعیت صحنه کشته شدن نر گاو آسمانی، از تصویر سازان یاد شده ، به مطالعه بینامتنی و تحلیل بیناگفتمانی بپردازد،
تا با وجود متنی تقریبا مشابه و فرهنگ یکسان تصویرگران ، علل تفاوت و گوناگونی تصاویر و عوامل موثر در بروز این اختلافات را با روش ترامتنیت ژرار ژنت و تحلیل بیناگفتمانی مورد بررسی قرار دهد.
بررسی پیش متن ها بازگو کننده آن است که عوامل فرامتنی چون بافت و پیش متن های فرهنگی و عوامل درون مؤلفی در دریافت های تصویرگران و بازنمود آثارشان موثر بوده و تأثیر پیش متن های فرهنگی- هنری بر تصاویر قابل توجه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Transtextuality -Interdiscursivity study the killing of the heaven male cow scene in epic of the Gillgamesh illustration

نویسندگان [English]

  • nasim fakharizade 1
  • bahman namvar motlagh 2
  • ashrafalssadat mousavilar 3
1 student
چکیده [English]

Gillgamesh epic is one of the oldest versed epics of human ,and of Mesopotamia's rich hertage which was composed 12 centuries B.C ,but according to the mud tablets discovwred from ashor Banipal library,it was composed about 6 th century. This poem consists of three thousands and six hundred hemistiches which structurally , poetically and stylically considered as one of the master pieces inepical literature all around the world. This narration has been recorded on 12 mud tablets which describes the events that Gillgamesh , Uruk king, passes in finding a solution for deat problem , and he finally finds out that his attempt was useless , so he surrenderes the fat.
Many authors have translated these tablets throughout history and within different Cultures, and they have been a topic for many different researches ; also , these tablets have been an interest for many authors and artists. Among those , the one compiled by Ahmad Shomlo with Morteza Momayezi's illustration, and the one compiled by Hanibal Alkhas with Manoochehr Safarzade 's illustration are of importance. In other word ,this paper tries to study intertextually and to analyse interdiscovsally , by the selection of two pictures which depict the killing of the Divine cow , from the mentioned illustrators , in order to study the reasons for the diversity and difference of pictures and the factors which affect the enducement of these differences , by Gérard Genette transtextuality and interdiscorsal analysis , despite the approximately similar text and culture related to the illustrators . The study of pretexts shows that the metatextual factors such as context and cultural pre-texts, and enter-author factors were effective in illustrators' insights and the reflextion of their works. And the influence of cultural – artistic pretexts on their illustrations is noteworthy.

Gillgamesh epic is one of the oldest versed epics of human ,and of Mesopotamia's rich hertage which was composed 12 centuries B.C ,but according to the mud tablets discovwred from ashor Banipal library,it was composed about 6 th century. This poem consists of three thousands and six hundred hemistiches which structurally , poetically and stylically considered as one of the master pieces inepical literature all around the world. This narration has been recorded on 12 mud tablets which describes the events that Gillgamesh , Uruk king, passes in finding a solution for deat problem , and he finally finds out that his attempt was useless , so he surrenderes the fat.
Many authors have translated these tablets throughout history and within different Cultures, and they have been a topic for many different researches ; also , these tablets have been an interest for many authors and artists. Among those , the one compiled by Ahmad Shomlo with Morteza Momayezi's illustration, and the one compiled by Hanibal Alkhas with Manoochehr Safarzade 's illustration are of importance. In other word ,this paper tries to study intertextually and to analyse interdiscovsally , by the selection of two pictures which depict the killing of the Divine cow , from the mentioned illustrators , in order to study the reasons for the diversity and difference of pictures and the factors which affect the enducement of these differences , by Gérard Genette transtextuality and interdiscorsal analysis , despite the approximately similar text and culture related to the illustrators . The study of pretexts shows that the metatextual factors such as context and cultural pre-texts, and enter-author factors were effective in illustrators' insights and the reflextion of their works. And the influence of cultural – artistic pretexts on their illustrations is noteworthy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gillgamesh illustration
  • Interdiscursif
  • Manoochehr Safarzade
  • Morteza Momayez
  • Transtextuality