عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The Sustainable Communities movement offers a response to global issues by linking the practice of community development with detrimental global impacts, suggesting that our most critical global environment issues are rooted in local, day-to-day problems. In particular, this movement notes that global risks affecting our human habitats are local matters, more often than not created by humans. Therefore action to address the negative consequencies recognized at the global level requires human interventions at the local level, where humans experience the integration of legislation, policies and planning practice.
In this regard, “micro viewpoint” has substituted “macro viewpoint” and according to this standpoint, development commences from the very smallest urban unit that is “Community”. Community development has two main approaches: one is “need-based approach” which is influenced by entitlement policy and believes in technical values and the other is “asset-based approach” that implies on local capitals, residents’ participation and capacity building.
In recent years, Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) has caught the attention of numerous community development practioners. As an alternative to the more commonly practiced need-based approach, ABCD shifts the focus of community development from “problem-solving” to “asset-building”. This approach is premised on the idea that people need to take control of their own lives. It is committed to the idea that people can and should take more responsibility for identifying their own needs and managing their own welfare, resources and directions. This is well aligned to the holistic approach to developing sustainable communities.
Community assets mainly include social capital and physical capital. Social capital as an important part of local capacity can be used by individuals and groups to facilitate their accessibility to local resources. Also physical capital (buildings, roads, open and public spaces) which makes up the most visible and formal part of a community’s fabric, is essential to the success of community development process.
As it is studed in local and international experiences and literatures, social capital is multi-dimensional with each dimension contributing to the meaning of social capital although each alone is not able to capture fully the concept in its entirety. Also it is clear that the components of social capital need to be treated as multidimensional rather than one dimensional. Measurement of social capital to contain its multidimensionality is a major issue in experimental research. Scientists have proposed a set of indices to measure various dimensions of social capital such as participation and social engagement, perception of community, social interaction, social trust, reciprocity and social cohesion.
In this article, organized participation tendency and quality of physical facilities (as the main goals and important factors in sustainable community development), social capital and physical capital (as two main assets in community level) are studied. The studied indicators are extracted from domestic and international studies and experiences and are measured through survey and random sampling in Imamzadeh Hassan neighborhood. The results of multiple regression and path analysis for sustainable community development, social capital and physical capital indicate that social capital is a main key factor to reach sustainable development at community level and has direct increasing effect on both organized participation tendency (0.477) and quality of physical facilities (0.369). While, physical capital mediated by social capital has increasing effect (0.448) on organized participation tendency and quality of physical facilities. These results confirm the importance of both social and physical capital in sustainable community development. So ABCD is a strategy for sustainable community-driven development and beyond the mobilization of a particular community, ABCD is concerned with how to link micro assets to the macro environment.
Also the results indicate that collapse in neighborhoods spatial structure and physical quality results in decreasing of social relationships and weakness of the area's social structure. Also it is perceived that creating strong social networks such as social groups and local communities have feedback in solving problems and improvement of living conditions. With reference on the proposed spatial structure, which sustainability indicators have been seen in it, the condition will be provided, in which social networks work effectively and properly. The assessments show that social communication in a mutual process end in improvements of spatial structure and physical quality in an urban neighborhood.