عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Examination of a Persian Garden as a multi-layered phenomenon includes various aspects. Part of it relates to the material and physical structure of the garden. Since the main body of research on Persian Gardens considers well-known gardens and their specific and partly similar scheme, examination of a different type of a Persian Garden can open a window to better understand this historical/cultural phenomenon. Although all different types are generally similar, they differ in accordance to different life demands.
One of various types of a Persian Garden combines the main enclosure with other smaller open spaces. Since the whole garden area is open and wide, it can also integrate with other types of smaller scale open spaces to create new combinations. Historical gardens of Birjand are one of the most prominent examples of this type of combination. These gardens are composed in an orderly yet simple layout, and integrated with smaller open spaces ranging from the scale of a small yard to that of an extensive area like a garden itself. These open spaces attach to the garden in a number of ways such as: andarun courtyard, open courtyard, loading area, entrance yard, mahtabi , roof, soffeh, sharemi, meydan-cheh, jelo-khan, and agricultural field.
In this paper, these open spaces are described first to form a clear image of each, and next, presents the roles of each in their total composition. This can be assessed in terms of residence, recreation, and geometrical structure of a garden. The andarun area in addition to various types of attached, functional open spaces contribute to the residential aspect of a garden. Moreover, these open areas sometimes provide special views to the garden or become such significant as to deserve design, contributing to the recreational aspect.
Furthermore, they create hierarchy and provide the possibility of extension of the garden space, in addition to making room for various buildings. These are all effective roles that complement the geometric structure of a garden.