عنوان مقاله [English]
Multiple definitions of "power", considers two different approaches to it, an approach directed from above towards the bottom where the subjects of power, enforce the agent on the objects of power.In contrast, Foucault's approach to the power lacked direction in which the subject could be the subject and object of power at the time. In this approach, the way to the power resistance is open and the human life is formed. In the study of power, especially the gendered power a vast range of tools are used. One of the most strong of them is using of the look. The gaze theories concentrate in particular on power enforcement of masculine on the feminine bodies. The study of the gaze precisely the male gaze, develops a way to the expression of power in the visual works.
This research is studying of the 178 paintings in which the female figure is represented, by the use of the gaze theory, the look of the spectator at the woman, and the direct address to the viewer by the represented woman is categorized in paintings. By content analysis in qualitative and quantitative methods, the power representation in the works of Iranian painter's association members is in-depth analyzed.
The results show that in the depiction of the woman, the policy of power representation is not the common ones. The illustrated woman is not considered of being passive and dominant, in the sense, she is not just the subject of the act of looking. The woman by addressing the look to the viewer, specially the gaze to the spectator in accordance with the resistance in Foucauldian power relations, she will be in the agent position of Power. In the depiction of woman the artist uses all of the visual and technical methods. By using the equivalent vertical angel of view, the woman will be in the same position with the viewer and the artist. But the power relation of the artist and the viewer is common approach. The viewer has no chance to be the agent of the action of the look on the artist, and the artist by use of his artistically techniques, induces him to the way of seeing. the cultural prohibitions which are affected of the religious and social doctrines are very stronger than visual hedonistic emotions and the consequence is that by resistance to the covering of the woman's head, in compromise with the political, social and cultural institute of power that controls all the actions of Iranian Painters Association, the artist refuses to show a naked woman as the subject of hedonistic, male gaze.