عنوان مقاله [English]
The comprehensation process in classical hermeneutic is a subjective act which makes possible to understand an alive person. The comprehensation is an opening of the one's world, also the others'. However, according to Heidegger the comprehensation is the ability of understanding the one's possibilities for existence and in the context of life he lives. The quality of the comprehensation pointing and the idea of circle hermeneutic have been concerned by hermeneutic theologians and ontoloygists. One of them, Ronald Barthes, in his last book, Camera Lucida, about the understanding of a picture as a text, states the picture as a context, and realizes the existence basis of the picture context in the circular reference of reader and its living context, also the circular dialectical relationship between the specific reader of the picture, the picture context and the tradition which the reader and picture come from. One of the significant points of Schleiermacher's hermeneutic is 'circularity of understanding' which is known as 'hermeneutic circle' now. Schleiermacher, who is known as the father of modern hermeneutic, introduced the circularity of understanding to explain the understanding of text. While, later Martin Heidegger and his great student, Hans Georg Gadamer, in their hermeneutic theory, did not limit the issue to understand the text. They have developed the circular to the fundamental principle of human understanding of their own essence.
Generally, the hermeneutic circle explains that how the component and the whole, in understanding and interpreting process, are related together in a circular form: the understanding of the components is essential to understand the whole, also to understand the components the whole should be understood. Furthermore, the general idea of a sentence in which the meaning is depended to each single word; and here – in this sentence- the meaning of the words also depends on the general meaning of the sentence. Therefore, it can be said that a single concept has its meaning from the text or horizon in which sits in it, and the horizon itself is formed by the elements which gives meaning to them. The component and the whole, in a dialectic action, describe each other. So, the understanding is circular and the notion will form in this circle. Then, we call it hermeneutic circle because the understanding of the first person of a text may cause to create a new understanding with reconsidering the text by the interpreter, and the circle will be continued with each understanding from the text. The circular hermeneutic understanding can be developed to artistic texts and interpretations. The understanding of a picture as the image of a past life is very important due to the relationship of the picture with its social, historical and regional situation and the nature of its specific audience, and it shows the roundtrip and circular relation in the private understanding of the image.
First, the circular hermeneutic of a picture is not similar to the circular hermeneutic of a text, because a text can say the sequences of what happened; but a picture is a fixed image. Second, the pictures and images are related with the previous experience of the interpreter, who has a mind full of images based on the life experience and have made him or her a specific living, and creates a special situation to interpret. It means that each picture has an unconscious relation with a set of subjective images, on a selectiveness basis. These relations interfere hermeneutically, in the interpretation of the picture or any other image directly.
The present study, based on Camera Lucida, has investigated the nature of hermeneutical circle in interpretation of photography and tries to reconsider the manifest of circular understanding in the text of a picture.