ماهیتِ دَورِ هرمنوتیکیِ فهم، در زیبایی‌شناسیِ تأویلِ عکس

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد عکاسی و عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنرومعماری، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 استادیار گروه مجسمه سازی و نقاشی دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد صنایع دستی دانشگاه الزهراء

چکیده

چکیده
در هرمنوتیکِ کلاسیک، فرایندِ فهم، عملی ذهنی است که به وسیلهی آن، تجربه ی انسان زنده درک می شود. فهم، گشاینده ی جهانِ خود و دیگران، به روی ماست. به بیان هایدگر اما، فهم، قدرتِ درک امکان های خود شخص است برای هستی و در متن زیست جهانی که وی در آن زندگی می کند. چگونگیِ حصولِ به فهم، لایه های فهم و مساله ی حلقوی بودنِ فهم، دغدغه ی متألهین هرمنوتیک و هستی شناسان بوده است. در این میان رولان بارت در آخرین کتاب خود اتاق روشن، در فهمی که از عکس به مثابه متن به دست می دهد، بنیانِ هستندگیِ متنِ عکس را در حلقه ی دوارِ رجوعِ مخاطب و متنِ زیسته اش، و ارتباطِ دیالکتیکیِ حلقوی میان مخاطب ویژه ی عکس، متنِ عکس و سنتی که مخاطب و عکس از آن برخاسته اند، می داند. حلقوی بودنِ فهم، یکی از نکاتِ مهمی است که در هرمنوتیک شلایر ماخر مطرح می شود و امروزه به حلقه ی هرمنوتیکی شهرت دارد. شلایر ماخر که در تاریخ فلسفه از وی به عنوان پدر هرمنوتیک مدرن یاد می شود، حلقوی بودن فهم را برای توصیفِ فهمِ متون ارایه داد. در حالی که بعدها، مارتین هایدگر و شاگردِ بزرگش، هانس گئورگ گادامر، در نظریه ی هرمنوتیکی خود، مسئله را مختص به فهمِ متون نمی دانستند، و این حلقه را به اصل بنیادینِ فهمِ بشر از ماهیت و وضعیتِ خویش بسط و گسترش دادند.
حلقه ی هرمنوتیک، در کل به توصیفِ این نکته می پردازد که چگونه جزء و کل، در فرایندِ فهم و تفسیر، به صورتی حلقوی به یکدیگر مربوط اند: فهمِ اجزاء برای فهمِ کل ضروری است، در حالی که برای فهمِ اجزاء، باید کل را درک کرد.
مقاله ی حاضر، بر پایه ی متنِ اتاقِ روشن، به بررسیِ ماهیتِ دورِ هرمنوتیکیِ فهم در تأویلِ آثارِ عکاسی پرداخته و سعی در واکاوی بازنمودهای دور فهم در متنِ عکس را دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The essence of hermeneutical circle of comprehensation, in the aesthetic of picture interpretation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Norouzitalab 2
  • Ghazale Seifi 3
1 M. A. in Photography, Faculty Member of Faculty of Arts and Arxhitecture, Sistan and Bluchistan University
2 Ph. D. in Art research, Assistant Professor, Department of Sculpture and Painting, School of Visual Arts, College of Fine Arts, Tehran University. ntalab@ut.ac.ir
3 M. A. in Handicrafts, Alzahra University.
چکیده [English]

The comprehensation process in classical hermeneutic is a subjective act which makes possible to understand an alive person. The comprehensation is an opening of the one's world, also the others'. However, according to Heidegger the comprehensation is the ability of understanding the one's possibilities for existence and in the context of life he lives. The quality of the comprehensation pointing and the idea of circle hermeneutic have been concerned by hermeneutic theologians and ontoloygists. One of them, Ronald Barthes, in his last book, Camera Lucida, about the understanding of a picture as a text, states the picture as a context, and realizes the existence basis of the picture context in the circular reference of reader and its living context, also the circular dialectical relationship between the specific reader of the picture, the picture context and the tradition which the reader and picture come from. One of the significant points of Schleiermacher's hermeneutic is 'circularity of understanding' which is known as 'hermeneutic circle' now. Schleiermacher, who is known as the father of modern hermeneutic, introduced the circularity of understanding to explain the understanding of text. While, later Martin Heidegger and his great student, Hans Georg Gadamer, in their hermeneutic theory, did not limit the issue to understand the text. They have developed the circular to the fundamental principle of human understanding of their own essence.
Generally, the hermeneutic circle explains that how the component and the whole, in understanding and interpreting process, are related together in a circular form: the understanding of the components is essential to understand the whole, also to understand the components the whole should be understood. Furthermore, the general idea of a sentence in which the meaning is depended to each single word; and here – in this sentence- the meaning of the words also depends on the general meaning of the sentence. Therefore, it can be said that a single concept has its meaning from the text or horizon in which sits in it, and the horizon itself is formed by the elements which gives meaning to them. The component and the whole, in a dialectic action, describe each other. So, the understanding is circular and the notion will form in this circle. Then, we call it hermeneutic circle because the understanding of the first person of a text may cause to create a new understanding with reconsidering the text by the interpreter, and the circle will be continued with each understanding from the text. The circular hermeneutic understanding can be developed to artistic texts and interpretations. The understanding of a picture as the image of a past life is very important due to the relationship of the picture with its social, historical and regional situation and the nature of its specific audience, and it shows the roundtrip and circular relation in the private understanding of the image.
First, the circular hermeneutic of a picture is not similar to the circular hermeneutic of a text, because a text can say the sequences of what happened; but a picture is a fixed image. Second, the pictures and images are related with the previous experience of the interpreter, who has a mind full of images based on the life experience and have made him or her a specific living, and creates a special situation to interpret. It means that each picture has an unconscious relation with a set of subjective images, on a selectiveness basis. These relations interfere hermeneutically, in the interpretation of the picture or any other image directly.
The present study, based on Camera Lucida, has investigated the nature of hermeneutical circle in interpretation of photography and tries to reconsider the manifest of circular understanding in the text of a picture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • hermeneutical circle of comprehensation
  • picture interpretation
  • text
  • Roland Barthes
  • Hermeneutic science