بررسی و تحلیل تطبیقی مفهوم محله در نظام سنتی شهرهای ایران با الگوهای مشابه (جایگزین) دوره ی معاصر

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه معماری دانشگاه زنجان معاون شهرسازی و معماری شهرداری زنجان

چکیده

محلات شهری زیر مجموعه ای از نظام بزرگ شهر می باشند که به دلیل داشتن مقیاس مناسب و توانایی ایجاد اجتماعات منسجم محلی، تسهیل مدیریت شهری، یکپارچگی جامعه و در نهایت راهکاری برای پایداری ساختار شهر امروزی که از اجتماع رو به انحطاط، آلودگی، آشفتگی و تنزل کیفیت زندگی رنج می برد، مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند. بدیهی است توجه به محله به عنوان یک راهکار و ضرورت، هنگامی اثر بخش می باشد که شناخت کافی و درست از مفهوم محله وجود داشته باشد تا در شرایط مختلف زمانی و مکانی، مناسب ترین راهکار اتخاذ شود. توصیفات فوق این سوالات را در ذهن متبادر می کند که آیا شرایط متفاوت زمانی و مکانی بر مفهوم محله تاثیر می گذارد ؟ اگر پاسخ آری است پس مفهوم محله در نظام سنتی شهرهای ایران با الگوهای مشابه شهرسازی معاصر چه تفاوتی دارد و دلایل آن چیست؟
پاسخگویی به سوالات فوق که هدف این نوشتار است به کمک روش توصیف و تحلیل اطلاعات و داده های اسنادی و کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته و پژوهشی خطی – تحلیلی می باشد. بر اساس آنچه بدست آمده، محله مفهومی کالبدی-اجتماعی است که هدف آن در شهرسازی کهن ایران و الگوهای معاصر جایگزین یکسان بوده و تفاوت در نحوه ی شکل گیری و زمان آن موجب بروز تمایز میان این دو شده است. بدین ترتیب که شکل گیری تدریجی محله در نظام سنتی ایران که با مشارکت ساکنین همراه بوده سبب القای معانی ارزشمند فرهنگی- تاریخی و هویتی به محله می شده که الگوهای از پیش طراحی شده معاصر فاقد این ارزشها بوده و نتیجتا برای دست یابی به آنها تلاش می کنند که این برنامه ریزی و تلاش گاهی موفقیت آمیز بوده و گاه با شکست روبرو شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation and Comparative Analysis of the Concept of Mahalleh within the Traditional System of Iranian Cities with Similar Patterns (Alternative) to the Contemporary Ones

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Fakhroddin Hosseini 1
  • Mehrdad Soltani 2
چکیده [English]

Urban Mahalleh are subsidiaries of the macro-scale system of a city which have gained a considerable amount of attention because of their appropriate scale, their ability to established competent local communities, facilitating civil administration while contributing to the integrity of the society finally leading to an approach toward more Sustainability within the urban structure of today suffering from a declining community, pollution, chaos and downgrading quality of life. Obviously, recognizing the Mahalleh as a kind of solution and their necessity would be efficient when they are adequately characterized, so that the best solution can be followed on various occasions. Above explanations may give a rise to the following questions: Will various spatial and temporal circumstances affect on the concept of Mahalleh? If yes, what are the differences between such a concept within traditional system of Iranian cities and similar contemporary patterns of urban development, and what causes such differences?
This paper is an attempt to answer these questions via the method of description and analysis of information as well as documentary-archival and library data in the form of a linear – analytical research. According to the obtained results, Mahalleh is a physico-social concept with the same purpose within old Iranian urban development as that of substituted contemporary patterns, while the differences caused by the formation time and manner being the distinguishing factor between them, so that gradual formation of Mahalleh within traditional systems of iranian cities accompanied by a participation from the residents has provide the districts with valuable cultural-historical meanings and identities, while predefined patterns suffer from a lack of such values, thus are always trying to achieve them. Such a planning and design have been successful in some cases while they failed in some other ones.
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Urban Mahalleh are subsidiaries of the macro-scale system of a city which have gained a considerable amount of attention because of their appropriate scale, their ability to established competent local communities, facilitating civil administration while contributing to the integrity of the society finally leading to an approach toward more Sustainability within the urban structure of today suffering from a declining community, pollution, chaos and downgrading quality of life. Obviously, recognizing the Mahalleh as a kind of solution and their necessity would be efficient when they are adequately characterized, so that the best solution can be followed on various occasions. Above explanations may give a rise to the following questions: Will various spatial and temporal circumstances affect on the concept of Mahalleh? If yes, what are the differences between such a concept within traditional system of Iranian cities and similar contemporary patterns of urban development, and what causes such differences?
This paper is an attempt to answer these questions via the method of description and analysis of information as well as documentary-archival and library data in the form of a linear – analytical research. According to the obtained results, Mahalleh is a physico-social concept with the same purpose within old Iranian urban development as that of substituted contemporary patterns, while the differences caused by the formation time and manner being the distinguishing factor between them, so that gradual formation of Mahalleh within traditional systems of iranian cities accompanied by a participation from the residents has provide the districts with valuable cultural-historical meanings and identities, while predefined patterns suffer from a lack of such values, thus are always trying to achieve them. Such a planning and design have been successful in some cases while they failed in some other ones.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Concept of Mahalleh
  • Traditional System
  • Contemporary Patterns