تحلیل ساختار فضائی شهر تبریز در دورۀ صفوی با مقایسۀ تطبیقی سفرنامه ها و اسناد تصویری

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشکده معماری و هنر دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تبریز

چکیده

شهر تبریز تا اواسط حکومت شاه تهماسب صفوی 962ه.ق/1555م به عنوان پایتخت و بعد از آن تا اواخر حکومت سلسلۀ صفوی 1193ه.ق/1779م به عنوان دومین شهر مهم کشور ایران از جنبه های مختلف مذهبی، سیاسی، اقتصادی و همچنین معماری از اهمیت ویژه و منحصر به فردی برخوردار بوده است. به گونه ای که در دوره قاجار نیز با حفظ لقب دارالسلطنه، ولیعهد نشین و همچنان دومین شهر مهم ایران محسوب می شده است. متأسفانه سوانح طبیعی از جمله زلزله هولناک سال 1193ه.ق و سوانح مصنوع اعم از جنگهای پی در پی با کشور قدرتمند عثمانی، باعث زیر و رو شدن ساختار فضائی این شهر گردیده و امروزه بعد از گذشت سه قرن محقیق را با سؤالات زیادی در رابطه با ساختار فضائی تبریزِ دورۀ صفوی مواجه نموده است. چرا که تنها مستندات باقیمانده شامل معدود بناهای به جامانده از این دوره به همراه سفرنامه های سیاحان و در برخی موارد ترسیماتی می شوند که از سوی برخی از جهانگردان با مقاصد مختلف ثبت شده اند. از این رو هدف مقاله حاضر تحلیل ساختار فضائی تبریزِ دورۀ صفوی از طریق مقایسۀ تطبیقی سفرنامه ها و همین اسناد تصویری است تا در نهایت بتوان تصویر نسبتا دقیقی از ساختار فضائی صفوی این شهر ارائه نمود. جهت نیل به هدف در جمع آوری داده ها از روش تاریخی- اسنادی با بهره گیری از متون و منابع و در تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش تحلیلی- تطبیقی استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است که تبریز در اوایل صفوی از حدود گستردگی بیشتری برخوردار بوده به گونه ای که این حدود به وسعت شهر امروزی تبریز می رسیده است. لیکن بعدها به دلیل تضعیف جایگاه سیاسی این شهر در زمانهای مختلف رفته رفته کوچکتر شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyze of Spatial Structure of Tabriz City during Safavid Era with Comparative of Itinerary and Visual Documents

نویسنده [English]

  • lida Balilan Asl
Architecture and Art Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch
چکیده [English]

Being capital during one part of the Safavid dynasty and in the other part as the second most important political, economical, social, cultural and architectural city in Iran, Tabriz was considered a very important city. Unfortunately, the natural and artificial disasters such as incessant earthquakes and war with the powerful neighboring countries had completely destroyed its structure, to the extent that, today, its structure and appearance in the Safavid period is in an aura of ambiguity. The only remaining documentation of that era is travelers’ travelogue, and some drawings by some tourists that had been drawn for different purposes. Thus, the present paper seeks to examine the dispersion and relation of architecture and urban elements in Tabriz in the Safavid period; that is to say, in a period coincided with the majesty and authority of neighboring Ottoman. Thereby, the paper attempts to help restoring part of the country’s architecture and urban history. Research results suggest that the dimensions of Tabriz in the Safavid period as a commercial- state city were smaller than its dimensions in Ilkhanid period and larger than the Qajar’s . Among the main features of Tabriz architecture and urbanism in the Safavid era, are development of religious places, including mosques, tombs, mystics and poets’ cemeteries, and some Tekieh, government and military fields in addition to public and service fields, expanding the structure of the city’s Bazar along the Silk Road, variety and development of state space in the downtown core of the city and the variety and multiplicity of the urban neighborhoods.
Following is a brief list of some of the written sources including books and travelogues of Safavid period: Hmdolah Mostofi (8 & 9 AH century/ 1389-1489 AD), Veniziyan (938AH/ 1514AD), Contarini (876AH/ 1474AD),Alessandry (1947AH/1571AD), Wriyht (1015AH/1606AD) Tavernier (1046AH/ 1637AD), Oliya Chalabi (1050 AH/ 1639Ad), Chardin (1076AH/ 1665AD), Gemelli Careri (1105AH/ 1693 AD), Villote (1108AH/ 1696AD), and John Belle (112AH/ 1715AD).
In relation to visual documentation of Tabriz in Safavid period, there are two cases. The first is the miniature known as Matrakci miniature which has been drawn by someone called Nasuh for the King Suleiman’s library in 944 AH / 1538-1537 AD. And the second is a painting that Chardin has offered in his travelogue of Tabriz. Although these two cases, especially the miniature, do not have the required historical accuracy, they are the only reliable graphic sources that had been taken of Tabriz in those years.
Having said this, in order to answer the main research question and achieve its objective, this paper employs a descriptive method to data collection procedure applying a historical – documentation approach using texts and sources. An analytical – comparative method will be employed to analyze the findings. Thus, firstly, detailed studies will be carried out in conjunction with the Matrakci miniature, and then the results of the travelers’ description from Tabriz in the Safavid period will lead to reviewing many architecture and urban elements. The results will turn to a diagram of Matrakci miniature with graphic symptoms of architecture and urban elements. Then, the recalled elements in this diagram will turn to two-dimensional maps of Tabriz in Safavid period by taking advantage of some historical buildings on one hand and using the dimensions of Tabriz in Qajar and Ilkhani period on the other hand. This map will contain the name and location of the gates, the structure of neighborhoods and main passages of the city, names of rivers and canals, the name and location of bridges, the number and the dispersion of religious elements, commercial spaces and squares. In this regard, it is necessary to first have a quick look at the political, social, economic, cultural, and religious position of Tabriz in the Safavid period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • spatial structure
  • Tabriz City
  • Safavid Era
  • itinerary
  • Visual Documents