ارزیابی طرح کارل فریش بر پیکربندی ساختار فضایی بافت قدیمی شهر همدان(با استفاده از تکنیک چیدمان فضا)

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 معاون وزیر، رئیس هیات مدیره و مدیر عامل شرکت مادر تخصصی عمران و بهسازی شهری ایران

2 دانشجو

چکیده

با روی کارآمدن رضاخان، تفکرات شبه مدرنتیه، شکل گرفت. اجرا خیابان کشی های به عنوان اولین نمودهای شهرسازی مدرنیته، در بافت های شهری اجرا شدو این امر بر نظام محله ای و اجتماعی تاثیرات منفی برجا گذاشت، امری که علاوه برآن، برساختارمندی و سلسله مراتبی شهرنیز آسیب رسانید. در دوره های قبل اگر بازار به عنوان ستون فقرات شهری نقش بازی می کرد، با اجرای شدن طرح های خیابان کشی، بازار به حاشیه، و خیابان به عنوان لبه قدرت مند، جایگزین بازار شد. همدان نیز جز شهرهایی می باشد، که در دوره پهلوی اول، خیابان های بر بافت قدیمی احداث گشت، یعنی از اواخرسال 1310 به بعد با طرح کارل فریش، میدان مرکز شهرو شش خیابان منشعب از آن ونیز کمربندی ها برای دسترسی سریع ، ساخته شد. نوع تحقیق توصیفی – تحلیلی و با استفاده از نقشه محوری شهر در سال های 1297،1332و1393و نرم افزار Depthmap و تکنیک اسپیس سینتکس به تحلیل ساختار و هم پیوندی شهر در دوره قبل و بعد از خیابان کشی ها که مرحله بعد خیابان کشی ها، به دو مرحله احداث شش خیابان منشعب از میدان امام و مرحله دوم یعنی بعد از احداث کمربندی تقسیم می گردد، پرداخته ایم، که طبق نتایج حاصل از ساختار شهر در سه دوره، حاکی از این می باشدکه ، نقشه هم پیوندی شهرقبل خیابان کشی حکایت ساختار مندی و رعایت سلسله مراتب نسبت به خیابان کشی ها دارد، و نیز در این دوره بازار به عنوان هم پیوندترین فضای شهری نقش دارد،ولی بعد از خیابان کشی های مرحله اول، خیابان به عنوان هم پیوندترین فضای شهری، بر بازار غلبه می کند، ولی در مرحله بعد، یعنی با احداث کمربندی ها، میزان هم پیوندی، حتی در خیابان ها هم کاهش یافته، به گونه ای که میزان هم پیوندی خیابان و معابر محله ای تقریبا شبیه هم و معنا ومفهوم هردو یکسان و به معنا دیگر، سبب اختلال هویت خیابان ها و معابر محله ای شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of karl Frisch's plan upon(on) the configuration of the special structure for the Ancient Texture IN Hamadan By using the Space syntax Technique(Method))

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Saeid Izadi 1
  • adel sharifi 2
چکیده [English]

The first decade of quattrocento(heliacal hegira),it encountering to in power and dominion of "Reza khan Pahlavi" and publication the culture modernity in Iran, one of the initial appearances (aspects) of the modernity thought , is the alternation "Persian city" to "western cities", based on that city's skeletal changes causing the addition of output( efficiency) and efficiency, which this job(matter) was done(accomplished) via trace the streets with properties of "western streets" upon(on) the cities, ancient (old) texture. tracing the street's which without(phase) the viewpoint , structure and hierarchy of cities were accomplished, and causing the sectional and social system that was one of the properties of Islamic – Persian cities, was marginalized, and here after, sectors(parish ) citizenship that, sometime or other , were supplying (providing) their daily and weekly needs from center or section market, referring to recent avenue(street), which is passing near the sectors, for supplying their needs, and when bazaar playing the(a)role as the city and sectors spine and as full traffic pivot, by for mation the forenamed streets, these properties were in charge of street, else.
Hamadan, one of the oldest cities in world, which are, there of , reminiscing as the initial capital in world, a city combined with Persian city was known as one of Islamic- persian cities after the entrance of Islam, a city with(by) own specific social and sectional system, that having sectional centers which was, there of,reminisce as " lawn" and they were supplying their citizenship needs. as said before , by reigning of reza khan, civic plans were provided for some of cities, as Hamadan. Karl Frisch, Germany, as a designer and engineer in Ministry of Interior, designed a plan by property of sphery city with concentric circles near the center of former city , a plan which its executive procedures began late of 1310 and was applied till decade of 70, completely.
The kind of research was descriptive analytic and planned the city pivotal plan during 1332,1297,1393, by using Auto cad software and for have analysis the structure and associative of city have proceeded by using "depthmap" and "space syntax Technique" In this essay to analysis the executive plan of city, divided it in 3 cowses , thus, at first the plan of city that provided by English Army on 1297(heliacal hegira), we imported in forenamed tive of that ,the city has a systematic structure and it (program) the most associate part of the city begins from the kernel of bazaar , and by changing the color scheme , of (from)the warmest color (red), that belongs to Bazaar starts, and into(toward)the coldest color (blue), that belongs to the end of the next step ,as a hierarchy, finishes(ends).
In the next step, by generating(formation) six streets (since 1310 to 1332), the vast changes were occurred( happened) in hierarchy system in the city , for the duration of it the street occurs as the most integration instead of bazaar, although the amount of city association increases than (into) the pre-term(course), but this addition because of increase the standard deviation is not proved positive, and in text step(term) which is, in fact, the continuation of karl frisch's plan is completing generating the cingulates (since 1339 to decade of 70) interspace 750 meter of(from) the city center , and for the duration of it unpredictable changes in civic system occurs and also the amount of the association of the whole city decreases into (than) the pre- term of the cingulates, the streets in the past step of the city by hot color(green) as, (thus) streets and section pathways align (setting in one class) from the color scheme , and in fact, the amount of their association is similar , it means that, the identity disorder has been occurred on streets and pathways.
On the other side, the amount of the city standard deviation has increased on the whole. Which is indicative of it, by generating the cingulates, the structural anarchy has been increased in the city. So , on the whole , it can say that although, the forenamed plan has been increased the amount of association that(into) pre-course (period) of tracing street, but because of the addition of the standard deviation which explains the anarchy of city, we can say it has caused to waste the urban( civic) hierarchy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Space Syntax
  • karl Frisch
  • street
  • Bazaar
  • structure