بازشناسی سیمای معماری آرامگاه غازان در مجموعه "ابواب البرّی" غازانیه ونقش آن در روند تحولات شهرسازی ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو

2 رئیس دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه مازندران

3 عضو هیدت علمی پژوهشکده میراث فرهنگی

10.22034/bagh.2019.34903.2274

چکیده

صرفنظر از ویرانی و تخریب بخشی از شهرهای ایران در ابتدای هجوم مغول، سیمای شهرسازی سایر بخش های ایران، خصوصا آذربایجان، نه تنها شاهد ویرانی و تجزیه بافت شهری نیست، بلکه از همان ابتدا ایلخانان را متوجه به شهر و آبادگری معرفی می کند. سیاست مغول در جلب افکار عمومی و قشرهای تاثیرگذار مذهبی در نتیجه تسامح دینی طی دوره مزبور، ساخت و سازهایی را به منظور حفظ وحدت جامعه، بر بدنه ی شهری تحمیل میکند که از سوی اقشار مختلف جامعه مورد قبول واقع شود؛ از طرفی، ظهور شخصیت غازان و ذهنیت متفاوت وی در رابطه با اسلام، بهترین نمونه مجموعه های شهری با مرکزیت عناصر مذهبی و مشخصة بارز هم اندیشی نسبت به فضای کالبدی شهر و مقتضیات اجتماعی را در خود بروز داد که تا آن زمان بی سابقه بوده است؛ طراحی و ساخت مجموعة معماری "غازانیه" با نام ملی "ابواب البر" را باید از نخستین نتایج به دست آمده در زمینة مزبور دانست که نگارندگان فرایند طرح ریزی و اجرای آن را از نخستین ایده های شهرسازی ایرانی در زمینة اسکان به جهت تنظیم جمعیت شهری می دانند که بازسازی مشخصات معماری آن بسان حلقه ی مفقوده بین سلسله بناهای مراغه تا گنبد سلطانیه در چگونگی شناخت روند تکامل سبک آذری مفید خواهد بود. تحقیق پیش رو بر آن است که به روش تحلیل محتوایی متون به تبیین ویژگی های شهری و بازآفرینی آرامگاه غازان و طرح کلی ابواب البر غازانیه بپردازد؛ چراکه مطالعه ساختار فضایی شام غازان به عنوان نخستین نمونة موجود در تاریخ شهرسازی ایرانی از نوع مذکور و در مقیاس عظیم که بعدها ساختار مجوعه ربع رشیدی و سلطانیه را تاثیرگذار خواهد بود بسیار حائز اهمیت می باشد. از طرفی بر خلاف آنچه که توسط صاحبنظران حیطه معماری و شهرسازی همچون ویلبر، بلر و بلوم تصور شده است، پیرو نتایج به دست آمده، طرح مقبره غازان نه یک منشور دوازده وجهی بلکه یک استوانه حجیم با پوشش مخروطیست. از طرفی، پر واضح است بازسازی وجوه معماری یک مجموعه ی ویران شده ی عصر ایلخانان تا چه اندازه می تواند در بررسی سیر تکوینی مجموعه های معماری دوره های بعد مفید واقع شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition the architectural appearance of Gazan tomb in “Abvab-Alber” Complex of Ghazaniyeh and its role in the trend of Iranian urbanism revolution

چکیده [English]

Regardless of destruction of a part of Iranian cities during primary Mongol invasion, which is inevitable in war philosophy with the aim of conquering in order to domination and separating absolute rules, appearance of other areas, especially Azerbaijan, not only witnessed no destruction of urban sections but also experienced bloom and revivification. Easy-going religiousness during Ilkhanid monarchy for preserving unity, caused some constructions which were accepted by different social classes of the society. Gazan’s monarchy resulted in very prominent period in Ilkhhanid history which was a turn point in architect and urban planning. Also, formal acceptance of Islam by Gazankhan and the ties between religion and monarchy led to the creation of the best architectural collection with the feature of mutual thinking about urban structures that was unprecedented till that time.
Designing and building architectural collection of Gazanieh with the national name of “Abvab-Alber” was an elementary attempt in this field in which the shrine of the founder was the organizing element of other spaces of the complex.
It seems that during Ilkhani era, creating towns outside the city (Sham Gazan in west and Rabe Rashidi in east) prevented from the spread of central core of Tabriz and human disasters as a result of limitless urbanization. Also, creating buildings for the growth of a new capital, Tabriz, which was the capital of Islamic world looked necessary in a way that the conditions of that time necessitated a strong residential area like Sham Gazan. In that era, Tabriz had two separate cores with the centrality of Jameh Mosque as a religious unit and the ruler’s shrine in Sham area in a way that Abvabolber has replaced the central unit or old fort.
This architectural complex erected when urbanization in Iranian cities was developing to concentrating centralization. On the other hand, because of harsh social situation which was caused because of invasions and lack of economic opportunities in Iran as a war-torn country, rural settlements pretended to migrate to cities. Certainly this process carried a lot of problems in terms of redistribution of social facilities. Religious centers like mosque, shrine, school, and cloister were effective in forming architecture of Gazanieh. In this town, the eagerness for destruction in Mongols turned into the tendency to construction and attention to the people. As a focal point, shrine had the main effect on forming urban structure of Gazanieh. From the other hand, grandeur of the dimensions of Gazan shrine shows that the dome was built to be seen from far places, not offering a group of life conditions in the internal space. Moreover, additional functions of the shrine allowed the people to stop for additional aims or target complements. In fact, Gazan shrine was a connecting bridge among Muslim factions and was respected by every one for religious liberty in Ilkhani era. Such a complex could play a central role in the society’s survival rather than being only a shrine. Examining its architecture and elements shows architectural homogeneity in the dimensions and form of built shrines in Azerbaijan. Also, garden in Gazanieh is an inseparable section in Ilkhani era. In this way, they turn urban structure into city gardens and improve defense mechanisms of the city. It is evident that Gazanieh aimed to exceed and excel over all previous tower-shrines. Uniqueness of this dome regarding its sides and innovations reveals high personality of deceased person in it and Rashidedin whose political thoughts was affected by Islamic beliefs, Iranian traditions, and Mongol thoughts evoked the tendency to eternity in Gazan, providing the grounds for founding Abvabolber. In previous king generations of Gazan, there was no huge shrine. Thus, Gazan’s monarchy can be a turning point in Iranian shrine-making since it was the first big shrine-making attempt by a king. In the shrine, earthy body connects to the heavens. Thus, building high towers can be a symbol of ascension since the man has always imagined his connection to the ever-lasting world in a vertical shape. Moreover, in Islam, circle is the only perfect shape for revealing God’s grandeur. Also, circle is the symbol of permanent movement.
The authors suggests planning process of Abvabolber as one of the first prototypes of Iranian urbanism in the field of accommodation for controlling urban population. Thus, reconstructing its architectural appearance can be the missing ring of Maragheh buildings to Soltanieh Dom for identifying evolutionary trend of Azeri style. This paper attempts to have a content analysis of the texts about urban features and reconstruction of Sham-Gazan Complex since its structure is the first sample of the so-called type in urbanism history of Iran which affected building Rab-e-rashidi Complex. It is evident that to what extent the reconstruction of architectural a ruined complex of Ilkhanian monarchy can be useful for studying evolutionary trend of architectural complexes of next eras.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gazanieh
  • urban texture
  • Ilkhanian monarchy
  • Abvab-Alber
  • Azerbaijan area