سرزمینهای اروپایی در قرون وسطی از جمله در قرن دهم میلادی قربانی بربریت، جنگها، غارتگریها و رقابتهای شوالیهها و طبقه اشراف بودند و از امنیتی نسبی برخوردار نبودند. ایشان همواره سعی داشتند با تشکیل دولتهایی مستقل و جنبشهای دهقانی به دنبال ایستادگی در برابر مهاجمان و شکست آنها از وضعیتی پایدارتر برخوردار شوند. مورخان از قرن دهم به آخرین دوره از «عصر فترت» یاد میکنند. در این قرون اروپا به لحاظ اقتصادی، سیاسی، دینی و اجتماعی، و وضعیت علمی و فرهنگی در شرایط نامطلوبی به سر میبرد. این درحالی است که سرزمینهای اسلامی در قرن چهارم هجری دوره رنسانس و شکوفایی خود را میگذراندند؛ عصری که مسلمانان در تمامی حوزههای تمدن (همچون علم، فرهنگ، صنعت و هنر) پرآوازه و صاحبنظر بودند. پژوهشگران بیغرض حوزة تاریخ تمدن به ویژه تاریخ اسلام و اروپا همگی بر تأثیر دستاوردهای مسلمانان بر اروپا در حوزههای مختلف از جمله هنر در قرن چهارم هجری تأکید میورزند. با این پیشزمینه مقالة پیشرو به دنبال ردیابی مصنوعات هنری در آثار موزهای و کتب منتشره در دو حوزه تاریخ تمدن و تاریخ هنر با مسئله فقدان آثار تولیدشده توسط هنرمندان اروپایی قرن دهم میلادی با تأثیرپذیری از هنر اسلامی قرن چهارم هجری مواجه شد. به دنبال پاسخگویی به این مسئله فرضیه مطرحشده در طول مقاله تقویت شد که آثار اسلامی قرن چهارم هجری از طریق بازرگانی و هدایای خلفای اسلامی به پادشاهان، اشراف و شوالیهها به اروپا در قرن دهم میلادی منتقل شده است و هنرمندان اروپایی با توجه به شرایط نابسامان آن دوران تنها دریافتکننده و سفارشدهندة آثار بودند و به تولید آثار با بهرهگیری از ویژگیهای اسلامی اهتمام نورزیدند.
Transfer of the Handicrafts of Islamic lands from the fourth century AH to Western Europe in the tenth century AD
Medieval European territories were the victims of barbarism, wars, rivalries and Competitions of knights and nobility in the tenth century and did not have the relative safety. They always tried to establish independent states and peasant movements to resist the invaders and defeat them in order to enjoy a stable condition. Historians remind the tenth century as the last period of “Recess”. Europe had adverse conditions economically, politically, religiously, socially, culturally and academically in these centuries. Since the Islamic lands spent Renaissance and their prosperity in the fourth century, this period is interpreted “Islamic Renaissance”. The period that the Muslims in all areas of modern civilization (such as science, culture, industry and the arts) were renowned and expert. Impartial researchers in the field of the history of civilization, especially the history of Islam and Europe emphasize on the impact of Muslims’ achievements on Europe in various fields such as art, in the fourth century AH. With this background, the paper sought to trace the artifacts in the museum’s works and books published in the field of history of civilization and history of art and faced with impressibility of Islamic art of the fourth century AD. Hence, the paper aims to examine the influence of Islamic art in Western Europe in the fourth century and answer to the question that what is the reason of the lack of European art works influenced by the characteristics of Islamic art in the tenth century. The works and research of scholars of art history and civilization is a witness of influence of Islam and its art on Medieval Europe. Although the impact and the impressibility are occurred in many centuries and there are many researches and articles that have focused on comparative study of them in particular regarding technical studies and Motifs of artworks, but there has not been a research about Islamic artwork and its comparison with Europe artwork in forth century and it has not been even mentioned. Studying the status of Europe in the tenth century AD that suffered from unstable and chaotic status, the imagination of the existence of art manufacturing workshops almost seems unlikely that artists want to resemble the basics in creating artworks from the another land such as Islamic lands. The authors of this article did not find a true example according to the available resources. The impact of Islamic works on Europe in the fourth century is mentioned in many books and articles, but these impressibilities can be utilized in the next centuries that will likely be associated with poor state of Europe in the tenth century and in contrast its stable condition of following centuries. In fact, there was the struggle over the superiority of the Islamic lands in various fields in the tenth century in Western Europe and only from the eleventh century onwards, the utilization of Muslims achievements in the creation of artworks is created. Islamic artworks from the forth century went to Western Europe by trade and many of them were kept in treasures of Christian churches and have remained until now. In addition, there is not any sign of resembling in studied texts in creating Islamic handicrafts between European artisans and the preference of kings, nobles and knights is to use the works that have created in Islamic lands. It is important to note that the Islamic works were transferred to the west by businesspersons and the gifts of Islamic caliphs in the forth century and other ways of transferring such as translation and war, especially the Crusades were effective in the eleventh century and onwards. Silk fabrics, Shroud cover, glass and crystal bowls and silver dishes are Islamic works in the forth century that were transferred to Europe I tenth century and were popular among the upper classes of Europe. Therefore, it seems that the Islamic works of the fourth century AH are moved to Europe in the tenth century AD by commercial and the gifts of the Islamic Caliphates to kings, nobles and knights.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Islamic art of the fourth century AH, Tenth century Europe, The transfer of Islamic works, Gifts and commerce